Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Software Piracy Problem Free Essays

Programming theft is a rising issue in the United States, however around the globe. In 1993 overall programming robbery cost 12. 5 billion dollars to the product business, with lost 2. We will compose a custom article test on Programming Piracy Problem or on the other hand any comparative theme just for you Request Now 2 billion dollars in the United States alone. Appraisals show that more than 40 percent of U. S. programming organization incomes are produced abroad, yet about 85 percent of the product industry’s robbery misfortunes happened outside of the United States fringes. The Software Publishers Association demonstrated that roughly 35 percent of the business programming in the United States were gotten unlawfully, which 30 percent of the robbery happens in corporate settings. In a corporate setting or business, each PC must have its own arrangement of unique programming and the proper number of manuals. It is illicit for a company or business to buy a solitary arrangement of unique programming and than load that product onto more than one PC, or loan, duplicate or circulate programming under any conditions without the earlier composed assent of the product producer. Numerous product directors are worried about the lawful consistence, alongside resource the board and expenses at their associations. Numerous organizations include their lawful offices and HR concerning programming dissemination and authorizing. In 1974, Congress made the Natural Commission on New Technological Uses (CONTU) to examine whether the developing PC innovation field outpaced the current copyright laws and furthermore to decide the degree of copyright assurance for PC programs. CONTU presumed that while copyright security ought to reach out past the exacting source code of a PC program, developing case law ought to decide the degree of assurance. The commission additionally felt that copyright was the best option among existing licensed innovation defensive systems, and CONTU dismissed prized formula and licenses as reasonable defensive components. The CONTU report brought about the 1980 Computer Software Act, and the report goes about as casual authoritative history to help the courts in deciphering the Act. In 1980 The Copyright Act was altered to expressly incorporate PC programs. Title 17 to the United States Code expresses that it is unlawful to make or to convey duplicates of copyrighted material without approval, aside from the clients option to make a solitary reinforcement duplicate for authentic purposes. Any composed material (counting PC programs) fixed in a substantial structure is viewed as copyrighted with no extra activity with respect to the creator. In this way, it isn't essential that a duplicate of the product program be stored with the Copyright Office in Washington, D. C. for the program to be ensured as copyrighted. In light of that then a copyright is a property right as it were. So as to keep anybody from selling your product programs, you should request that a government court stop that individual by an order and to give you harms for the injury they have done to you by selling the program. Instructions to refer to Software Piracy Problem, Essay models

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Natural disasters are often not natural Essay

Cataclysmic events are frequently not catastrophic events, however are in actuality human fiascos. Talk about this announcement comparable to seismic occasions. The word ‘natural’ shows that people have not caused the debacle. In any case, human action can absolutely meddle with nature, which thusly may either cause a catastrophic event or aggravate its belongings much. Seismic tremors can influence individuals from various perspectives in nations everywhere throughout the world. They are a result of extraordinary seismic movement where plates are communicating, at a dangerous of change flaws, especially prompting a development of pressure beneath the Earths surface. At the point when this pressure is discharged the structures, spans, pipes and so on which lie in the line of the seismic waves can regularly not withstand the power and strain of the tremors and can conceivably hurt individuals. Anyway is it the people’s shortcoming that the seismic tremor happened in any case? Seismic tremors incited by human action have been recorded in a couple of areas in the YSA, Japan and Canada. The reason was infusion of liquids into profound wells for squander removal and optional recuperation of oil, and the utilization of repositories for water supplies. A large portion of these tremors anyway were minor. The biggest and most broadly known came about because of liquid infusion at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal close to Denver, Colorado. For a considerable length of time researchers have been examining instigated seismicity, or how human movement can cause tremors. Such a connection picked up consideration in the mid 1960s when several shudders were recorded in Colorado after the Army started infusing liquid into a removal well. There are numerous ways human action can trigger seismic tremors. During the 1930s for instance, the development of Hoover Dam in Arizona released an eruption of seismic movement in the region that arrived at a size of 5 on the Richter scale. Geothermal-vitality ventures have been known to make the ground shake. This procedure includes siphoning press urized water a mile into the Earth, at that point sucking up the warmed fluid to make steam and drive turbines to produce power. A dam can't cause a quake without anyone else. The hazard factors, explicitly unsteady separation points, must be there as of now. With the correct conditions set up, however, a dam can trigger the occasion sooner than would have happened normally, and maybe even increment its extent. ‘Human designing has been activating seismic tremors for the greater part a century’ says Leonardo Seeber, educator at Lamont- Doherty Earth Observatory, and artificial shakes might be more typical than recognized. Anyway Dr. Seeber says that ‘distinguishing characteristic from activated quakes is for the most part difficult’ he said ‘Agents setting off the tremor regularly decline to concede obligation and make it hard to get the information that could demonstrate it’. Indeed, even a smell pressure increment can make a shortcoming fizzle, Dr Seeber stated: people will in general do it in two different ways. One is by changing the heap on the outside layer, regularly with fake lakes, which increment the heap, and with quarries and oil fields, which decline the heap. Different ways is expandi ng the weight of the interstitial liquid. This isn’t to state that all quakes are brought about by people. They are ordinarily normal events. They’re frequently brought about by the moving of plates of rock under the surface od the earth. These plates move along separation points, which are places where the in any case strong stone of Earth’s hull has split. At the point when the plates slide against one another, or away from one another, the Earth vibrates viciously. Less regularly, tremors are brought about by common events like volcanic ejections. In any case, vibrations felt at the outside of the Earth can likewise result from Earth-shaking, artificial occasions like underground bomb testing and mine breakdown. Taking everything into account, my view is generally, the collecting pressure that makes the pressure develop until it’s sufficiently extraordinary to beat that grinding, so, all things considered seismic vitality is discharged brutally as the squares get up to speed with decade’ s worth of movement in only a couple of moments is excessively enormous for human exercises to have any kind of effect. We can, in any case, influence the rubbing that locks up the issue. Water driven breaking, where liquids are siphoned into the ground at amazingly high weights to split shakes that discharge petroleum gas and oil, has been appeared to do only that in specific circumstances. Expanding the liquid weight inside the shortcoming mostly de-balances out the erosion lock, bringing down the pressure limit important to trigger a seismic tremor only enough for one to happen. Regardless of the conspicuous negative impacts that people have on rashly causing a quake, the regular variables of the seismic tremor are in a general sense the explanation they happen on the grounds that without these then the tremor wouldn’t occur. Human effects accelerate and may aggravate the seismic tremor anyway they are in truth catastrophic events with human components tossed into the condition.  ­Ã¢ ­Ã¢ ­Ã¢ ­Ã¢ ­Ã¢ ­Ã¢ ­Ã¢ ­Ã¢ ­Ã¢ ­Ã¢ ­Ã¢ ­Ã¢ ­Ã¢ ­Ã¢ ­Ã¢ ­Ã¢ ­Ã¢ ­Ã¢ ­Ã¢ ­

Wednesday, July 29, 2020

Combining the Arts and the Sciences

Combining the Arts and the Sciences If you cant explain something simply, you dont understand it well. Most of the fundamental ideas of science are essentially simple, and may, as a rule, be expressed in a language comprehensible to everyone. Everything should be as simple as it can be, yet no simpler Albert Einstein Ever heard of Alan Lightman? He’s one of the most famous professors at MIT, with a unique talent for both writing and astrophysics. Perhaps you have heard of some of his books: Einstein’s Dreams (1993), Good Benito (1995), Dance for Two (1996), or Reunion (2003). In 2002, he cofounded the MIT Graduate Program in Science Writing and is now an adjunct professor. Last Thursday, I attended a Science Journalism panel sponsored by the MIT Careers Office. The panelists were: Phil McKenna, who received his Masters in Science Writing through the program that Lightman established. Joe McMaster, a NOVA producer and Knight Fellow (a program that allows journalists to spend nine months immersed in MIT science classes) Gita Dayal, who graduated from MIT in 2001 from Brain and Cognitive Science and Comparative Media Studies. She is now a freelance journalist and teaches science journalism at Fordham University in New York City. It was an interesting panel where the speakers shared their insights about the ins and outs of being a science journalist. I went there just to get a feel for what a career in science journalism would be like. Even at the undergraduate level, there are plenty of opportunities to learn about science writing. One of the (many) graduation requirements is to get a “concentration” in the Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences (HASS). Basically, you can pick three or four classes in one of the following subjects: American Studies, Ancient and Medieval Studies, Anthropology, Archaeology and Archaeological Science, Black Studies, Comparative Media Studies, East Asian, Studies, Economics, Ethnic Studies, Foreign Languages and Literatures (Chinese, ELS, French, German, Japanese, Spanish), History, History of Art and Architecture, Labor in, Industrial Society, Latin American Studies, Linguistics, Literature, Middle Eastern, Studies, Music, Philosophy, Political Science, Psychology, Religious Studies, Russian Studies, Studies in International Literature and Cultures (SILC), Science, Technology, and Society (STS), Theater Arts, Urban Studies, Visual Arts and Design, Womens Studies, and Writing. I chose to concentrate in Science Writing. In Spring 2006, I took an Introduction to Technical Communication (21W.732) class that focused on Perspectives on Medicine and Public Health. We had several major writing assignments, including a narrative essay, critical review, review article focused on a public health issue, and final report on the same topic. We also got to read a lot of really good articles from the New England Journal of Medicine and Annals of Internal Medicine. Last Fall, I took a Science News Writing (21W.778) class taught by B. D. Colen, a Senior Communications Officer at Harvard and former writer, editor, and columnist for The Washington Post and Newsday. He offered a wonderful insider’s perspective and spoke very frankly about the ethical and practical challenges of American journalism. We had many opportunities to practice writing news stories under time pressure, through frequent in-class assignments. Additionally, we interviewed and wrote stories about two Harvard scientists and their cutting-edge research. This semester I’ll be taking a Science Essay class. Should be fun =) Is anyone interested in Science Journalism? Questions about HASS concentrations?

Friday, May 22, 2020

Looking Backward by Edward Bellamy Essay - 696 Words

Looking Backward The book Looking Backward was written by Edward Bellamy and published in the year 1888. Bellamy started off his career as a journalist but then married and decided to devote his efforts to writing fiction novels. Looking Backward was published and Bellamy was famous. The book stirred around the country and had people imagining a world like the one Bellamy created in his book. The idea of a utopia as the one he describes is unbelievable. His book is what people, of even now in the twenty first century, wish the world could possible be like. However, Bellamys world of reasoning and judging of people based on the inner beliefs was not what people of then or now do. Bellamys book showed a world of rationality being†¦show more content†¦Mr. West is surprised by how the society has turned out and the kindness he received from a complete stranger. This stranger and doctor is the other main character Dr. Leete. Julian begins to discuss the vast improvements among the half a century he has been asleep. Here Bellamy begins to describe the utopia world that he has created. Julian is amazed to hear how the society is equally prosperous and is worried and the society values common good among the society than who has the most power. Within the next few chapters Dr. Leete and Julian stay up to talk and answer questions that he may have. In these chapters Bellamy is using a comparison of the Julians old world to the utopia that he has just entered and what Bellamy is creating as readers continue with the story. Bellamy continues to explain further details of this utopia. For one Bellamy explains how each makes the money equally within the state and than how the money is given to the state to be equally distributed. Continuing on Bellamy describes a little how the society and state was run back in the ninetieth century. He talks about mans place in the work field and all the other responsibility that they carry out. Bellamy writes about each world a little at a time i n order for the reader to distinguish the differences of the ninetieth century and the twentieth century. As the chapters progress and the story of the unimaginable world continuesShow MoreRelatedLooking Backward By Edward Bellamy, And Fahrenheit 451931 Words   |  4 PagesTo you it could mean no more war, no more poverty, every person of every race and gender being treated exactly the same. However, to someone else their idea of a perfect world could be the complete opposite of what you would want. In Looking Backward by Edward Bellamy, and Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury the idea of a perfect world is not just an idea anymore, it becomes reality. Nevertheless, both books â€Å"perfect world† are completely different from one another. The theme of both books is to try andRead MoreFuture Visions of America in Looking Backward by Edward Bellamy507 Words   |  2 PagesPublished in 1888 Looking Backward depicts a future vision of America. Utopian Boston of the year 2000 is de signed in a constructive method that excludes capitalism. Through the medium of romantic novel, Bellamy seeks to impose the idea of socialism into the nineteenth-century American society. Written at a period when economic growth went off the rails triggering the rise in unequal distribution of wealth, Looking Backward attempts to propose a reform in social and economic systems. From the eyesRead MoreTo Succeed One Must First Dream in Looking Backwards by Edward Bellamy1163 Words   |  5 PagesSet in the late 19th and early 21th century, Looking Backwards is a utopian novel discussing the advantages of socialism, a political philosophy that many disenchanted intellectuals of the 19th century believed in. Edward Bellamy, the author, is included in that class of intellectuals. By being transported to the modern day, Julian West, the protagonist, is able to contrast the two societies he has lived in: the capitalistic 19th century and the utopian, socialist 20th century. Julian West,Read MoreA Thin Layer Of Fiction Are Looking Backward By Edward Bellamy And Herland By Charlotte Perkins Gilman1613 Words   |  7 Pagesbehind a thin layer of fiction are Looking Backward by Edward Bellamy and Herland by Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Both of these novels offer a critique to certain aspects of American society during the time period, and do so in very similar ways. Each of these novels, Looking Backward and Herland, depict utopian societies in order to fully illustrate the issues that the authors see in their current society. Although the issues being addressed may be different, the way Bellamy and Gilman discuss them containRead MoreA Window into Thinking During The Gilded Age in the Book Looking Backwards by Edward Bellamy1218 Words   |  5 Pageswho funded them, so people would be afraid of reform. However, this was not enough because social change was not instigated by labor or political parties but by the vow by mankind to persevere and conquer the old order and usher in the new. Mr. Bellamy contrasts the anarchist and socialist movements in order posit the latter in a more favorable light. An important issue resolved the nationalist movement is gender relations. Women have been elevated from domestic labor to equals of men. TheyRead MoreEssay on Bellamys Looking Backward: Utopia or Fantasy?1610 Words   |  7 PagesBellamys Looking Backward: Utopia or Fantasy?  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚        Ã‚   Although Edward Bellamys twentieth century society in Looking Backward appears to be the perfect utopia, it could never exist. The very factors that Bellamy claimed contributed to the societys establishment and success are, in reality, what would lead to its failure. The twentieth century society lacked the possibility for advancements in technology while at the same time lacking competition and appropriate incentives. Even ifRead MoreEssay on Visions of Utopia in Bellamys Looking Backward749 Words   |  3 PagesVisions of Utopia in Looking Backward  Ã‚   Edward Bellamy addressed many of the topics crucial to the development of a civilization in his book, Looking Backward. In the story he addresses several different features of years past utopias. Some being universal harmony, distribution of occupation according to individual aptitudes, equality of reward, universal ease and comfort, reduction of hours of labor, suppression of idleness, of competition, of the struggle for life, and also for money (DeRead MoreLooking Backwards And Fahrenheit 4511221 Words   |  5 PagesEdward Bellamy and Ray Bradbury both expressed their concerns that they had during their two different time periods. Their pieces of literature both reflected on a what-if society based on the current living conditions. Each of the main characters were both guided by people and amazed at what they could find if they broke their norm and put their heads in the mindset of creating or living in a better society. In each of the novels Looking Backwards and Fahrenheit 451, the authors clearly oppose whatRead MoreEssay on Edward Bellamy’s Looking Backward806 Words   |  4 PagesEdward Bellamy’s Looking Backward    People have always wondered what the future will be like. Certainly Edward Bellamy did when he wrote the novel, Looking Backward (1888). Bellamy uses a man named Mr. West as the main character in this novel. He opens by telling who he is and what his social standing is. West is a young man, around the age of 30, and is fairly wealthy. At the beginning, he tells us about his fiancà ©, Edith, and the house he is having trouble building for her. The trouble comesRead MoreGender Roles in Utopian Societies Essay1310 Words   |  6 Pagesis the more fragile character in the background. We wonder if the roles could reverse or how can these roles differ in certain societies. In Sir Thomas More’s Utopia, males play the dominant role when it comes to society, whereas in Looking Backward by Edward Bellamy focuses on female-dominated aspects of society. Utopia by Sir Thomas More depicts men to be the deciders when it comes to creating a family of their own. In the section Of Their Slaves and Of Their Marriages, More begins the idea of

Saturday, May 9, 2020

The Benefits of Heart Attack Essay

The Benefits of Heart Attack Essay Diabetes has turned into a severe problem today. Diseases can influence any portion of the heart. The excess weight tends to concentrate around the center, which makes it an extra risk component. You only have to be sure any increases are created slowly and carefully, which means that your body is prepared for the demand. Thus, the heart should be maintained in order to do its functions properly. While there are lots of risk factors which are out of your control, there are some essential measures you may take to continue to keep your heart healthy. Facts, Fiction and Heart Attack Essay Diabetes is among the fastest-growing diseases. A diagnosis of coronary attack is created by a doctor when they perform a physical exam and review your medical history. If you're concerned you might have or develop cardiovascular disease, you can begin with a self-evaluation by means of your physician's help. Heart disease and several of drugs can cause bradycardia, and a physician should evaluate it to determine if treatment is demanded. The ideal time to take care of a heart attack is within the very first hour of the very first onset of symptoms. Speak to your physician if you have any concerns about your danger of a heart attack. Steer clear of heavy exercise since it is shown to really raise the risk of heart attacks within 1 hour right after the exercise. Many heart attacks are mistaken for the start of the flu, especially if it's flu season. The Ugly Secret of Heart Attack Essay The heart is made up of a specific form of muscle called myocardium. Besides coronary heart disease as a result of fat deposition in the arterial wall, there are additional heart diseases come from abnormalities at birth. Fortunately, women can take strides to comprehend their exclusive signs of cardiovascular disease and can start to lower the cases of coronary disease. All women face the chance of heart disorder or disease. A high level of LDL cholesterin reflects a greater hazard of bosom disease. Losing even a small quantity of weight can help by lowering your blood pressure and decreasing your risk of diabetes both of which increase your potential for heart disease. While everyone can develop cardiovascular disease, certain things can increase one's risk. At times the disease contributes to acute myocardial infarction or stroke, which leads to disability or death. Ok, I Think I Understand Heart Attack Essay, Now Tell Me About Heart Attack Essay! Talking to others between cleaning cages and grooming animals would offer you a bit of selection and help you build confidence on the way. After discovering our website, you will no longer will need to bother friends and family with these kinds of requests. Folks that are concerned about their hearts will look for a different solution for their pain, and odds are they'll find something more dangerous than ibuprofen. A fast glance at the abstract told me that every one of the articles were incorrect. Ok, I Think I Understand Heart Attack Essay, Now Tell Me About Heart Attack Essay! Although heart disorder may frequently be considered of as an issue for men, heart disorder is easily the most normal source of loss of life for both women and men in the United States of america. It's unlikely that sexual activity can lead to heart attacks. A lot of women don't know that they've a heart problem until AFTER they've had a heart attack, making death the very first symptom for many ladies. So if you're a woman or a person who loves one you will need to understand how heart attack symptoms women differ from heart attack symptoms men. Heart Attack Essay - the Story Normal cardio exercises, keeping a healthful weight, a healthful and nutritious diet, including low fat and very low salt foods and quitting smoking are a few important lifestyle changes that someone has to make, to steer clear of additional heart difficulties and lead a healthy and peaceful life. Blood sugar is controlled in an extremely narrow selection. A superb diet for the heart is made up of fruits and vegetables which contain essential nutrients having the capability to increase heart health. Eating a healthful and balanced diet has a crucial role in promoting a wholesome heart. The Most Popular Heart Attack Essay Gastroesophageal reflux disease has come to be the most common supply of heartburn. Knowing the signs of each condition will make it simpler to settle on which malady you're suffering from. Deaths brought on by heart attacks are for the most part because of delay in treatment. The absolute most classic and dangerous of all of the heart attack symptoms is the denial of the possible importance of the function. The Advantages of Heart Attack Essay Even though the MVP and heart look as though they should secure the key attention, it is in fact the autonomic nervous system which should be the focus for virtually any healing wor k from the crisis. Your entire body and mind instinctively wish to avoid being traumatized, so all that extra energy needs to be diverted. Even in case you have already had a heart attack you can better your wellbeing and the standard of your life with a medically supervised exercise program. At the exact same time, you become better able to control the stress that you still face.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Tyjrtjr Free Essays

string(69) " so large that it’s unlikely to have occurred by chance alone\." Laboratory Class Eight: Brain and Behavior 2: Basic Unromantic and Function. Laboratory Class Nine: Revision Laboratory. References Inspirational Readings. We will write a custom essay sample on Tyjrtjr or any similar topic only for you Order Now All research or teaching using people at the University of Auckland requires approval of the University of Auckland Human Participants Ethics Committee. We have chosen the exercises carefully in order to provide you with what we hope will be an informative learning experience. However, if you are uncomfortable with any exercises we strongly encourage you to contact your tutor and ask to be excused from participation. It is much better if you are able to do this before the lab is underway. It is therefore recommended you read the manual to find out what is coming up before each lab and decide if you think any of the exercises may be distressing to you. If an exercise becomes distressing or uncomfortable for you during the lab, you are still able to be excused. Please be aware that you will only be excused from the specific exercise of concern, not the entire lab. Please also be aware that you will not be able to be excused from parts of a lab AFTER it has taken place on these grounds; you must see your tutor before or during the lab. For Ethical concerns contact: The Chair, The University of Auckland Human Participants Ethics Committee, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland. Tell: 373 7699 ext. 87830. Completing Laboratory Reports Introduction The laboratory reports for PSYCH 109 can count towards 20% of your final mark. Therefore, students are strongly advised to put significant effort into gaining good marks for their reports. When preparing reports, there are a number of things students should know. This section of the laboratory manual is written so that the appropriate information is available to all students. The various areas of psychology taught in PSYCH 109 have a long history of research. An essential component of scientific communication is the requirement of conciseness and parsimony. This means that when communicating experimental outcomes and conclusions (such as from an international research project or an introductory level laboratory in psychology) it is very important to write in precise was observed, should be given. However, oversimplification is not an acceptable course of action. Explanations need to account for what was observed: no more, no less. General considerations for Laboratory Reports ; Never exceed the page limit that is prescribed for an assignment, You will be able o answer questions adequately within the space limit. ; Ensure that you use appropriate grammar correct and spelling. Try to write clearly. Never assume that the marker knows what you mean. Remember that a marker can only evaluate what you have actually written – not what you meant to say in your answer. Plan how you are going to write your answers. Do not simply write the first thing that comes into your head. Write a draft answer that you can edit and revise before writing your final answer. Try and use short sentences. Two short sentences are usually better than a long one. Ideas can be stated more concisely in shorter sentences. Often, long sentences end up being ambiguous. ; Remember to proof-read your work carefully before submitting your report. Sometimes it is a good idea to ask a friend who is not enrolled in 109 to proof-read your work and check for clarity. If this person does not understand your answer, it is likely that the marker will also struggle to follow it. If it is discovered that two or more Laboratory Reports are exactly the same, the concerned parties will be subject to disciplinary action. Plagiarism of any kind is not permitted. General requirements To help you write laboratory reports that will reward your effort with good marks, he following list of important points has been prepared. If you want to attain high marks you will need to incorporate the elements in th is list into your written work for these papers. Constructing graphs experience of drawing graphs before and a few of you will have your own ideas of how a graph should be drawn. These ideas may come from what you were taught at school or from the way you were instructed to draw graphs in other departments. Different scientific disciplines have their own codes of practice and communication. This is because the most concise mode of communication for one rear of science may not (and usually is not) the most concise mode for another area. Psychology is a science that follows the codes of practice and communication set down by the American Psychological Association (PAP), and the PAP has produced a set of guidelines for the presentation of graphs from psychological research. According to PAP guidelines, there are strict rules for drawing graphs. In this Laboratory manual, however, when graphs are required, the emphasis will be more on how to interpret the graphs produced during the experiments. However, graphs must be legible and neat, and must follow the general guidelines below. General considerations for graph drawing Graphs should always be drawn within the space provided in the manual. It is a good idea to draw a preparatory graph on separate paper (graph paper will help you here) so that you can make a neat, correct copy in the space provided. Graphs should be made as large as possible without causing cramping or squashing. All graphs should be drawn in pen (never pencil) and only one color is permitted -? preferably blue. All straight lines from which a graph is constructed must be drawn using a ruler. All errors need to be corrected either by redrawing the graph or, for a very small error, by neatly whiting out the error. Statistical Analysis in the Social Sciences Significant Differences In psychology, we are often faced with the question of whether or not the difference we see in two groups of data is statistically significant. A significant difference observed in the data is one that is so large that it’s unlikely to have occurred by chance alone. You read "Tyjrtjr" in category "Papers" For example, we may be interested in knowing if students perform better in an examination under one condition than another – say, sitting an examination in a well-lit room as opposed too dimly-lit room. We could randomly mom, have them sit the examination in their allocated room, and then compare the two group’s examination results. There will always be a difference between the groups’ average results and there are two possible explanations for this difference: 1 . Non-significant Difference The observed difference could solely be due to which students happened to be allocated to which room, I. E. , could be Just due to chance alone and nothing else. OR 2. Significant Difference The observed difference is sufficiently large that we simply don’t believe that it’s likely to have occurred by chance alone but that the level of lighting in the room is also avian an effect on each group’s results, I. E. , this difference is so large that it is unlikely to occur when nothing else (apart from the ‘chance’ effect) is ‘going on’. Significance Tests and the p-value Sometimes the difference between two groups of data is really so large that, maybe with the aid of a plot, we can easily conclude that it is a significant difference. On most occasions though, it is not so clear cut and in order to objectively decide whether a difference is significant or non-significant we must perform a significance test. When we conduct a significance test, the most important value produced in the output is the p-value. The p-value is a probability, a value between O and 1, and it answers a question about the data: e. G. , â€Å"How likely is it, I. E. , what are the chances, I. . , what is the probability, that a difference this big, or bigger, would have been observed in the data if there really were nothing going on? † Interpreting the p-value Small p-values 0 a significant test result Large p-values 0 a non-significant test result If the p-value is small (less than 0. 05) then it is saying that less than 5% (0. 05) of the time (hardly ever) would we observe a difference(s) as big as this (or bigger) when toting apart from chance is contributing to it – it would be highly unlikely to get a difference(s) this big by chance alone. We say the observed difference is significant at the 5% level’. There are a large number of significance (hypothesis) tests available to use depending on the situation under study but in this course we will look at only one test, the Independent samples t-test. (Non-assessed laboratory class). Learning Objectives After completing this laboratory students should: 1. Understand the assessment requirements, requirements for pleasure, attendance acquirement, and assignment requirements for Psych 109. 2. Understand the hand-in dates for the two laboratory reports for Psych 109. 3. Understand the penalties for handing in late work; and the cut-off dates for accepting late assignments for Psych 109. . Understand where to hand in late laboratory reports for Psych 109. 5. Know the date and time of the terms test for Psych 109. 6. Understand what plagiarism is, and understand the consequences of plagiarism or other forms of cheating. 7. Understand the correct procedure to follow for raising individual concerns or course criticisms regarding Psych 109. 8. U nderstand that a Psych 109 student must attend their scheduled laboratory stream in the weeks that laboratories are scheduled, and that they must ensure that their tutor correctly records their attendance at laboratories. 9. Understand the procedure to follow if the scheduled Psych 109 lab cannot be attended. 10. Understand GAP requirements for undergraduate Psychology courses. Thinking. (Assessed laboratory classes). Lecturers: Associate Professor Tony Lambert (author of lab class). Associate Professor Doug Life (author of Research Methods lectures). After completing this laboratory students should 1. Understand the distinction between an independent groups research design and a repeated measures research design. 2. Be able to use a histogram in order to explore and evaluate the variability in set(s) of scores. . Be able to calculate the standard deviation of a set of scores using SPAS. 4. Be able to perform a t test in order to compare two experimental conditions. 5. Understand the statistical nature of inferences based on the outcome off t test. 6. Gain an appreciation of the complex issues that may be encountered in considering possible relationships between experimental evidence and theoretical conc lusions. 7. Be able to think critically about the relationship between experimental evidence, psychological theory and everyday behavior. Do men and women think differently? If so, to what extent and in what ways does the thinking of women differ from that of men? Judging from the enormous popularity of publications such as Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus; it seems that almost everyone has at least some interest in this question. In addition to popular publications of the Venus and Mars ilk, a substantial amount of serious science has been directed at answering this question. It will come as no surprise to discover that his work is controversial. Controversy over research into sex differences in thinking is apparent at several levels. There has been disagreement concerning the reliability of the findings: Sex differences have been reported in a number of published studies, but not all these findings been replicated successfully by other researchers. Therefore, questions remain concerning the reliability of results in this area. In addition to the question of empirical reliability, there is the rather thornier question of what the experimental question. For example there is of course the perennial nature-nurture issue. So if e find, for example, that men and women differ in their verbal and spatial skills, is this due to environmental factors arising from different childhood experiences and child-rearing practices for boys and girls; or is it due to innate factors, related to biological and relatively immutable differences in brain structure and function for men and women? In addition to this rather baldly stated dichotomy between nature and nurture, a third state of affairs is possible – that both nature and nurture contribute, and that biological factors interact with learning and experience in complex ways during childhood. One might also wish to consider the size of an experimental effect – although men and women may differ as a group on a particular cognitive task, there will also be considerable overlap in the scores. Clearly, the degree of overlap between the cognitive performance of men and women will have a bearing on the conclusions that can be drawn. The research findings of Hilary et al. (2005) Hilary et al. (2005; Behavioral Neuroscience, 1 19, 104-117) asked 42 men and 42 women to perform a variety of verbal and spatial tasks. Blood samples were also taken, so that measures of circulating hormones, especially estrogen and storefront, could be measured. This was done because one aim of their study was to discover whether there is any relation between hormone levels and performance on cognitive tasks. There were three main findings: (1) Females performed better than males on a verbal fluency task; (2) Males performed better than females on a spatial task involving mental rotation; (3) There were no clear relationships between hormone levels and performance on any of the cognitive tasks. In the laboratory exercise we will attempt to replicate the first two findings of Hilary et al. (2005). Obviously, it is impractical to look at their hormonal findings in PSYCH 109 – and even if we could, attempting to replicate their ‘null result’ may not tell us very much. ) Our study, and that of Hilary et al. (2005) make use of an independent groups research design (also known as a between subjects research design). As you will remember from the recent Research Methods lectures, an independent groups (between subjects) design involves comparing different groups of individuals. In this case, our independent variable (V) is sex , because the experiment involves comparing men and women with respect to scores on verbal and spatial tasks. Other examples of independent groups designs might involve comparing extravert’s with introverts (independent variable is personality), or five year olds with seven year olds (V) is age), or left hander’s with right hander’s (IV is handedness), or anxious with non- anxious individuals (IV is anxiety), and so on. An alternative, and equally popular approach is to use a repeated measures research design (also known as a within subjects research design). In a repeated measures (within subjects) experiment the same individuals are tested repeatedly in two or more experimental conditions. An example of this kind of design could involve comparing the driving behavior (using a simulator! ) of individuals before and after consuming varying amounts of alcohol (IV is alcohol dosage). Another example could involve asking individuals to employ and then comparing their performance under these different instructional conditions (IV is memory strategy). Each kind of design (I. E. Repeated measures and independent groups) has advantages and disadvantages which render them useful for research in different kinds of situation. One advantage of the repeated measures sign is that it is often more sensitive than an independent groups design. This is because each person is being compared with themselves under different experimental conditions. A disadvantage of repeated measures designs is that the results can be contaminated by practice and/or fatigue effects. A common strategy for eliminating or minimizing this problem is to counterbalance the order of performing in the different experimental conditions. For example, in the driving and alcohol example Just mentioned, half the participants might perform the driving task in the alcohol condition first followed (several days later! By the no alcohol condition; the other half would participate in the two experimental conditions in the reverse order. Independent groups is of course the appropriate design in any situation where the research question is related to individual differences, such as personality or handedness. Independent groups designs are also often used in the clinical trials of medical researchers, where the effectiveness of one treatment is compared with that of another. Hence, our experiment will employ an independent groups research design with sex (female vs.. Male) as the independent variable. The experiment will have two pendent variables: scores on a verbal fluency task and scores on a mental rotation task. As you will remember from Research Methods lectures dependent variable(s) are the quantities or factors that are being assessed to see whether they might be related to (I. . Dependent upon) changes in the independent variable. How to carry out the experiment As mentioned earlier, our aim is to try and replicate the findings of Origin Hilary and her colleagues published in the Journal Behavioral Neuroscience (Hilary et al. , 2005). To do this, each student participant will need to carry out a mental rotation task and verbal fluency task. All participants will perform the menta l rotation task first followed by the verbal fluency task. Figure 1. In the mental rotation task (see text) participants must decide whether pairs of shapes, such as those shown in A, B and C are identical or different. Mental rotation task Look at the top pair of pictures (A) shown in Figure 1. Are the shapes shown in the pictures exactly the same, or are they different? How did you arrive at your answer? Most people report that they solve this problem by imagining rotating the left hand shape clock-wise (or the right hand shape anti-clockwise), you ay be able to ‘see’ in your mind’s eye, that the two shapes are exactly the same. Now, decide whether the pairs shown in (B) and (C) are also the same. By using the same strategy, you might be able to ‘see’ that the shapes in B are also identical, but the shapes in C are different – and remain different, whichever way you rotate them in your imagination. The drawings shown in Figure 1 are similar to those used by Roger Sheppard and Jacqueline Metzger in a classic study published in the Journal Science in 1971. Sheppard and Metzger found that the time taken to make a decision in this mental taxation task increases systematically as the angular disparity between the two drawn objects increases. These findings attracted great interest at the time, and continue to attract interest nearly four decades later. One reason for this enduring fascination is that Sheppard and Mà ©tier’s findings showed that a mental phenomenon such imagination, which appears at first glance to be irredeemably private, subjective, and unobservable (by anyone else, aside from the person doing the imagining) can nevertheless be studied scientifically. Furthermore, their findings showed that one aspect of imagination, the mental rotation process, appears to operate in a highly systematic and lawful way. In the version of the mental rotation task to be used for this laboratory exercise, you will be presented with pairs of line drawings representing AD shapes, and will be asked to decide whether the two shapes are the same or not. As in the examples shown in Figure 1, the shapes will be presented at varying orientations. On trials where the correct response is ‘different’ the two shapes are usually mirror images of each other. These features of the task make it relatively difficult! Do not be concerned if you make errors when you carry out this task. The dependent variable or this part of our experiment is percent correct; clearly the experiment would fail if everyone was able to perform the task with 100% accuracy! How to cite Tyjrtjr, Papers

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

Tone of the poem Essay Example For Students

Tone of the poem Essay The length of the two poems is noticeably different, with AWIL being much shorter than CUFTFF. From reading the poems, you can realise that CUFTFF is much more descriptive than AWIL. We are given details of how the characters are related to each other, by reading mother, father and son. Also, we are given a very clear and precise description of the setting, compared to AWIL. I think that the author has done this to focus the reader on a particular family, to make them realise their true loss. The more a reader knows about the characters and their surroundings, the more they will be able to understand a message from anothers point of view. AWIL contrasts sharply with this aspect of the poem; this poem is considerably short and straightforward with less description. I believe that the author has chosen to write the poem in this way to imply to the audience that this loss applied to so many women. As a reader, we know that the poem does not focus on any person in particular, as the author has chosen to use the terms she and he. We will write a custom essay on Tone of the poem specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Also, we are not given any indication as to what these characters look like. This style of writing gets a similar message across to the audience in a completely different way. The theme and the meaning of the two poems are undeniably identical. I believe that the theme of the both the poems is grief and the reality of war. I also believe that the authors of the poems were trying to convey a strong message; that it is not just the soldiers who suffer in the war, but it is also very much the families too. This message also shows that war effected almost everyone in an emotional way, and that war was not as glorious as it was portrayed to be. This brings me also to believe that the authors of these two poems both shared the same feelings and attitudes toward war. I think that they felt deeply sorry for those who had lost loved ones in battle. Some words chosen by the two authors of these poems create the same meaning but in totally different ways. For example, Thomas Hardy, the author of AWIL, has chosen to reveal the soldiers death by using the word fallen. This is a much softer way of revealing that the wifes husband had been killed in battle and makes the reader sympathetic towards the wife. Walt Whitman, the author of CUFTFF however, chose to write he is dead. I believe that this is more shocking for the reader, as they are not expecting it especially as they have just been told Pete will soon be better. The two ways of revealing the death of the soldiers are different and, whilst the reader is feeling sympathetic in both cases, the words also have different affects on them. The tones of these poems begin and end quite differently. At the beginning of AWIL, the mood is very eerie, cheerless and gloomy, whilst the atmosphere is being illustrated. Words such as tawny vapour and cold create this tone. As a reader, you can tell something terrible is about to be revealed, so you are prepared by for it. At the beginning of CUFTFF however, the tone is cheery, optimistic and joyful. This mood is created by words such as leaves fluttering, calm, vital and beautiful. These words not only create a peaceful atmosphere, but also the reader is not expecting something bad to occur. Although the news of the injured son brings a sad tone to the poem, hope is restored when the letter states At present low, but will soon be better. As the tone of AWIL prepares the reader for bad news, it is no surprise to them when the tragedy is revealed. The mood suddenly turns darker and depressing. The quotation the fog hangs thicker when the poem is referring to the next day, implies that matters are worse, as the wife has been waiting all this time for bad news. .u190413ab149b5a921c279a52b8278ae9 , .u190413ab149b5a921c279a52b8278ae9 .postImageUrl , .u190413ab149b5a921c279a52b8278ae9 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u190413ab149b5a921c279a52b8278ae9 , .u190413ab149b5a921c279a52b8278ae9:hover , .u190413ab149b5a921c279a52b8278ae9:visited , .u190413ab149b5a921c279a52b8278ae9:active { border:0!important; } .u190413ab149b5a921c279a52b8278ae9 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u190413ab149b5a921c279a52b8278ae9 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u190413ab149b5a921c279a52b8278ae9:active , .u190413ab149b5a921c279a52b8278ae9:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u190413ab149b5a921c279a52b8278ae9 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u190413ab149b5a921c279a52b8278ae9 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u190413ab149b5a921c279a52b8278ae9 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u190413ab149b5a921c279a52b8278ae9 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u190413ab149b5a921c279a52b8278ae9:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u190413ab149b5a921c279a52b8278ae9 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u190413ab149b5a921c279a52b8278ae9 .u190413ab149b5a921c279a52b8278ae9-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u190413ab149b5a921c279a52b8278ae9:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Siddhartha Essay QuestionsThe next part of the poem, when the wife is reading the letter from her husband, is ironic but also has a sense of happiness; the husband has written about all the things he hopes to do with his wife when he returns home. The words penned in highest feather indicate that the husband was in a very hopeful and optimistic mood, and so this changes the tone of the poem. Towards the end of CUFTFF the tone of the poem takes an unexpected turn when the reader is shocked with the words he is dead already. Instantly, the mood is changed to misery and hopelessness. Like AWIL, this poem uses irony but in a different way, as the family received the letter of hope after the son had died. This leaves the poem on a note of despair. In conclusion the audience of the two poems can see how different strategies of approaching similar stories can change the way meaning is illustrated. The main similarity between the two poems is their message although they have been expressed in some very dissimilar ways. The main difference between the two poems is their structure and methods of bringing the pint of the poem across to the reader.