Tuesday, December 24, 2019

The Data Analysis For Business Continuity And Disaster...

The data analysis for business continuity and disaster recovery is divided into three parts. All the three parts strive to properly examine and answer the research questions in a well-structured and organized manner. The data which was analyzed from various reliable sources, such as white papers, leading companies and BCP service providers, and also survey reports on business continuity and disaster recovery will help in exploring the research questions and provide proper guidelines for employees and make them prepared for any unexpected event/disaster. Step 1: Answering Research Question 1 What are the best practices for effectively implementing BUSINESS CONTINUITY and DISASTER RECOVERY Plan. Research for this question will be done by reviewing the data which was gathered from many different sources focused on business continuity and disaster recovery plans. Sources from where the information is gathered will be chosen based on the credibility of the website/journal. First, how lack of bcp and drp can negatively impact the organization will be explained and also a graph which includes an effective business continuity process plan which each and every organization must follow. Later, three phases are created through which we can effectively implement bcp and drp and the phases will be created by using the data from studies which were gathered from Google search engine and also from the Ferris State library. Table 1: Most effective search keywords at reducing results. 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Not having a disaster recovery plan in place can put the company at riskRead MoreBusiness Continuity And Disaster Recovery838 Words   |  4 Pagesseveral disaster that has wreaked havoc in many way to nations and which consequently had rendered many businesses inoperable and many lives unbalanced. This chapter described how flood, fires, terrorists’ attacks, tornadoes, and vandalism among others had taken its toll in destroying many businesses. Since businesses depend on people, systems and many other resources for its daily activities and functionality, any disruption of services will definitely affect the health of such business. If a business

Monday, December 16, 2019

Motorola in China Free Essays

Executive Summary In a prominent level of integration worldwide economy today, people are more concerned about the phenomenon of intermediary corporations and multinational companies renounce the traditional research and development form in the host country where they have set up research and development centers. In this report I will discuss about Motorola’s reasons to enter China and commit itself as a local company. Moreover, I will talk about the localization strategies in china and its market position. We will write a custom essay sample on Motorola in China or any similar topic only for you Order Now Apart from that I will illustrate the PEST and SWOT analysis of Motorola’s localization strategy in China. Furthermore, I will discuss the characteristics of Motorola as the big emerging market in China. Table of content Contents Executive Summary2 Table of content3 Abbreviations4 Introduction5 Main body6 Reasons for Motorola to enter China6 Strategies adopted by Motorola to enter China. 8 Operation strategy of Motorola9 Framework analysis of Motorola operations in China10 India and China Global Trends12 Conclusion13 References13 Abbreviations PEST – Political, Economical, Socio-cultural, Technological SWOT- Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats SEZ – Special Economic Zone CAMP – China Accelerated Management Program RD – Research and Development IDEN – Integrated Digital Enhanced Network SARS – Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MNC – Multi National Companies ITO – International Trade Organization BPO – Business Process Outsourcing BRIC – Brazil, Russia, India, China GDP – Gross Domestic Product USD – United States Dollar SMIC – Semiconductor Manufacturing Internal Corp Introduction In 1987 Motorola established a delegate office in Beijing. It was dealing with exportation of telecommunications gear and semiconductor to China. Due to the increase of competitions from other companies, Motorola decided to move some of its industrialized activities to China. In 1992, Motorola China Ltd was established and opened an industry in Tianjin. Motorola was the leading worldwide market in manufacturing advanced electronic system, communications components and semiconductors. The company mainly dealt with cellular, personal communication, defense and space electronics’ and computers and other many more electronics products. According to Wen-Cheng et al. 2010) due to its expansion on business in six continents, Motorola employed more than 142,000 people and maintain production amenities globally. Motorola had a elementary objective of priotizing customers’ satisfaction through quality, speed, technology and team work. Motorola succeeded to fulfill its objective in China because it understood the market and the culture of the people. It also maintained uncompromising reliability and focusing on an idea of a world in which everyone can attain full potential. However, in 2000’s Motorola started to experience a huge competition from the Chinese mobile handset companies. Motorola’s market started to fall due to the increasing competition in the market. This led Motorola to raise its sales and market shares by introducing new strategy in 2002 in order to maintain its market. The strategy did not help as the matter of fact Motorola went on losing its market in China (Gaur and Cateora 2006). Main body Reasons for Motorola to enter China The growth of Motorola in China went proportional with China’s economic development and China’s involvement in the world economy. Establishment of Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in 1979 which stimulated investors mainly those which engaged in light manufacturing industries. The foreign companies that decided to confine at SEZ were privileged to special taxes treatment and particular services like infrastructure (Mack, L 2012). Chinese market size, China was the very momentous market for the company. Motorola thought that it was important to establish its manufacturing base and center for its company research in China (Hedley, M 2012). Despite China’s complicated social and political environment, Motorola was able to achieve tremendous success. It made it possible to make a way into Chinese market and became the leading company in the Chinese mobile market. It is said that Motorola paved its success due to the strategies it implemented and put into consideration of the people’s culture and the market. However, wealth of Motorola rendered the significance of the company to join to the Chinese market. In 2003 Motorola mounted up investment of $3. 4 billion which enabled the company to be the first in the list of foreign investors in China. It was also one of the biggest exporters from China- exporting goods worth more than $3. 5 billion (Gaur and Cateora 2006). Moreover, setting up a corporate image was another reason for Motorola to enter China and commit itself. Implementation of personnel, business culture, materials, and marketing localization can establish company’s public image. This is seen when Motorola decided to move its delegate office to China and expanded its business into various segments. In addition to that, in structuring its brand among the Chinese, Motorola mounted different signs and advertisements in busy market places and televisions in order to make people aware of what they are dealing with. It also opened big stores in the market areas such as Shanghai and Beijing offering the latest mobile andsets models. Also, Motorola came up with an innovative notion named Motorola Towns which specifically dealt with giving an exclusive retailing experience to consumers. In these towns consumers could walk in and see for themselves mobile handsets and make a try outs of other technological gadgets for free. This system helped customers to get the knowledge about the most modern technological trends and attach them expressive ly with the company. However, this system helped Motorola to get feedback from the customers about its products (Wen-Cheng et al. , 2010). Low cost of raw materials for production, Motorola provided technological support to its suppliers in order to get high quality raw materials for the production of their commodities. In doing so, it actively developed the suppliers from local areas to provide service to the company. Motorola made up a strong and reliable association with these suppliers so that they could produce raw materials which will enable Motorola to produce high standard commodities. Motorola got a full use of these suppliers as they came to establish their manufacturing base in China (Gaur and Cateora 2006). Low cost of labor, Motorola Company made sure that it produces high quality of commodities with low costs. In doing so, it produced professionals from their own universities in order to comprehend the business and organization structure and rules and regulation. Chinese population, in the year 1987 the population of China was approximately to 1. 1 billion. Due to that fact, Motorola computed that it would get a huge opportunity for the market of its commodities as well as adequate manpower to manufacture the products for affordable and low cost (PubMed 1987). Strategies adopted by Motorola to enter China. Motorola just like any other international company had its own strategies to enter Chinese market and make sure that it monopolizes it. And this is why at the start it set its industrialized facilities in China. For its success, Motorola adopted the five strategies which led to its remarkable achievements to conquer the Chinese market. The strategies are as follows:- a) Investment /Technology transfer. Technology transfer helped Motorola to constantly enhance the intensity of research and development in order to supply the country with the sophisticated communications solutions. Motorola spent $120 million in Tianjin area for production of pagers, cellular phones and simple integrated circuits. Due to the expansion of its technology, Motorola established the second plant for the production of automotives electronics, advanced microprocessors, walkie-talkie systems and fabricated silicon wafers (Gaur and Cateora 2006). b) Management localization. Motorola came into sense that in order to minimize cost and increase its market’s share, it should employ more Chinese staff. The Chinese staff required managerial talents so that they could be competent in management. To solve that problem, in 1993 Motorola established Motorola University to train the young staff about the international managerial situations. The University came to be the company’s training base as it dealt with communication technology and business management. At the end of the day, Motorola accomplished enormous success which led to its commitment to the people. It made sure that from seniors to the general staff were from local. As a result 90% of the staff was Chinese (Wen-Cheng et al. , 2010). c) Local sourcing. Cost maximization was one big thing Motorola was trying to avoid; as a result it sourced from local firms. Training was important to the staff to develop their standard by broadening technological and managerial maintenance. Training enabled the local companies to raise their productivity and value of the commodities and even supported them to penetrate into the world markets (Gaur and Cateora 2006). d) Joint ventures/ co-operative projects. To expand its market in China, Motorola entered in 9 joint ventures with Chinese companies in order to increase its production capacity. Joint venture helped Motorola to increase admittance into the Chinese market without launching more plants. In addition to that, Motorola was able to do some savings through joint ventures (Gaur and Cateora 2006). e) Brand localization strategy. Localization of the Motorola brand made it possible to hit the targeted groups. It localized the brand culturally so as to infiltrate the customers. The products with the cultural brand usually tend to integrate to achieve customers’ emotions of rejection from the elimination of foreign commodities (Wen-Cheng et al. 2010). Operation strategy of Motorola Motorola managed to defeat the Chinese market when it created and implemented the RD strategy as their secret weapon in the Chinese market. The strategy was centered on technological advancement and innovations. Motorola carried out researches in the locale of communication software and semiconductors. The research conducted facilitated Motorola Company to create FLEX paging technology helped Motorola to come up with the highest quality of commodities which were durable and valuable. Motorola also established labs for production procedure, analysis and software equipment on the increase of new technologies that would make China a high technology manufacturing hub. Furthermore, Motorola entered into research partnership with local universities whereby it could contribute equipments and give opportunities to college students to work as intern in the company. By doing this would enable Motorola to achieve the local country’s scientific and technological contribution and to respond to the host market demands and innovate near the production places (Wen-Cheng et al. , 2010). To make their operations in the Chinese market better, Motorola instituted the Motorola University in 1993 in order to train the Chinese employees to become competent in the global managerial positions. The University had a training program called China Management Program (CAMP). The program was for the Chinese staff whereby they were trained on the job for 14 months which involved action learning, coaching and rotation of training of staff by using Motorola’s global facilities. The CAMP syllabus helped the Chinese to be trained about the market economy, value creation, business process design and benchmark. Moreover, Motorola had to interview the staff in order to get the best ones for the job. It was important for the employees to know English as they were going to face the global market of which English language is the unifying language (Gaur and Cateora 2006). Framework analysis of Motorola operations in China Furthermore, assessment of external and internal environment of any organization is essential for its strategic planning. PEST analysis provides information that is useful to equalize the company’s resources and potentials to the competitive environment in which it operates. PEST stands for political, economical, socio-cultural and technological factors. Motorola used the PEST analysis to illustrate how it managed to operate its business activities in the Chinese market. Political factor, China had a difficulty and unstable social and political environment but Motorola managed to penetrate the Chinese market and paved its way to being the leading company in the Chinese mobile handset market. Economical factor, Motorola had its reasons to enter China and dominate the Chinese market. One of the major reasons is the huge population of China which is approximately to be 1. 1 billion. This factor stimulated Motorola as they were acquainted with the market of their commodities and availability of cheap labor. Moreover, social-cultural factor administered Motorola to perform incredibly in the Chinese market as they understood the local market and the Chinese culture due to its strategies it adopted. It localized the brand of its commodities culturally so as to gain access to the customers. Finally, technological factor Motorola advanced in research and development center in China called Motorola China Research and Development Institute in Beijing where technological advancement and innovation was focused. The institute was concerned with researches in the areas of communication software and semiconductors. The presence of manufacturing procedure, analytical, and software and equipment labs for expanding innovative technology made China a high-technology production hub (Gaur and Cateora 2006). Apart from PEST analysis, Motorola made sure that it has managed to use the SWOT analysis to show its weaknesses, strengths, opportunity and threats from the internal and external environment. Strength, Motorola was the leading provider of wireless handset communication and broadband system. In addition to that it was the solitary supplier of iDEN network infrastructure. Because of all that it became known to be the strong and famous in the market. Weaknesses, Motorola could not satisfy its customers as it produced low quality of goods, insufficient employees, diseases like SARS, fierce competition and lost of its prestigious customers (Gaur and Cateora 2006). Opportunities, strong brand, promotion strategies and risk taking through product modernization made Motorola to be well positioned in the market. The hybrid products which were produced by Motorola enabled them to get a huge market and expand to other countries like Japan, Taiwan, France, Italy, United Kingdom and Hong Kong. Threats, lack of government protection against the outside competitors, competition from Japan as it produced durable products and sold cheap and sharing market with the foreign competitors. SWOT ANALYSIS DIAGRAMPEST ANALYSIS DIAGRAM WEAKNESSES (W) STREGHTS (S) FIRM FIRM Technological Socio-Cultural Economical Political OPPORTUNITIES (O) THREATS (T) India and China Global Trends China and India being part of BRIC were able to become heir to globalization. Since the year 1980, China’s economy has been growing fast globally. Its GDP was USD 305 billion which led to be seen as the leading economy in the world. In 1980-2000, India made a step forward to the growth of 6% GDP. Due to their population size, India and China were both positioned in the emerging markets whereby China with 1. 3 billion population and India with 1. 1 billion (Needle, 2010). Talking about outsourcing worldwide with BPO and ITO, India and China maintained their dominance in the multi-sourcing trend. India manage to secure a good position in MNCs as its labour force was well skilled, sociable government policies for foreign investment, steady political condition and English language expertise. All this proved that India sustained its dominance to both ITO and BPO markets. China as well boosted its forces on the global sourcing. It was seen that, India led China in the dollar value of Chinese software industry as it was twice the India’s. The Chinese government supported the local software industry and this took a huge part in enhancing the growth of Chinese industry (Oshri et al. 2009). Conclusion Apart from all the success, Motorola faced down falls in the early 2003 which led the company to be sold to the Shanghaibased Semiconductor Manufacturing Internal Corp (SMIC). The said reasons for the fall of Motorola were SARS outbreak which caused the plant to be closed for the fear of the spread of the disease. Moreover, the increase of competition in the mobile market caused Motorola. As Motorola was losing its shares in the Chinese market, the competitors were raising. Furthermore, the excessive inventory of beyond 30 million handsets caused the price battles and discounts in the market and caused Motorola to fall by 10% in 2003 (Gaur and Cateora 2006). References Pearson (2004) Motorola in China. Available at: http://www. pearsoned-asia. com/comp/chow/instructors/preview/BS-Ch33. pdf (Accessed: 18 March 2012) Needle, D (2010) An Introduction to Business and its Environment. Myilibrary [Online]. Available at: http://0-lib. myilibrary. com. brum. beds. ac. uk/SearchResults. aspx (Accessed: 10 March 2012) Ghauri, P and Cateora, P (2006) ‘International Marketing’, Motorola in China. International Business Environment [Online]. Available at: https://breo. beds. ac. uk (Accessed: 22 March 2012) PubMed (1987) ‘The population on the mainland of China totals 1. 07244 billion. Available at:http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pubmed/12315472 (Accessed:22 April 2012). Emerald Strategic Direction (2002) ‘The reasons behind Motorola’s success in China’, what makes Chinese joint ventures a success,’ 19 (2) [Online]. Available at: http://www. emeraldinsight. com/journals. htm? issn=0258-0543volume=19issue=2articleid=869312show=html (Accessed 12 April 2012). Wen-Cheng, C. , Ying-Chang, C. Kuo, C. and Ying-Chien, C. (2010) ‘A Case Study on the Motorola China’s Localization Strategy’, [Online]. The Journal of International Management Studies, 5 (1) [Online]. Available at: http://www. jimsjournal. org/7%20Wang%20,Wen-Cheng. pdf (Accessed: 10 April 2012). Hamilton, L. and Webster, P. (2009) The International Business Environment. Oxford: oxford university press. Mack, L (2012) Chinese Culture. Available at  : http://chineseculture. about. com/od/businesseconomy/a/Chinas-Special-Economic-Zones-Sez. htm ( Accessed: 30 April 2012) How to cite Motorola in China, Essay examples

Saturday, December 7, 2019

The Americanization of Ben Franklin free essay sample

Also as Franklin moves up the social ladder, Wood gives different perspectives from Franklin on his social standing and how he Is a self-made man. From being a child of a lower-class family to becoming a huge Influence on the Revolutionary War, Benjamin Franklin Is one of the most interesting Founding Fathers. Starting with Franklins father, who has one of the lowliest Jobs as a candle and soap maker, the social hierarchy begins at the bottom and with all of the artisan Jobs that fall into that category.Franklin being the 15th of 17 children in the family shows that low class families were very large in size, making it very difficult for the youngest children of the family to gain any property or status. Primogeniture being the custom of the American colonies In the early 1 8th century makes It difficult for Ben Franklin to advance, putting him at a disadvantage. This disadvantage only helps to spark his desire to pursue knowledge and skill in writing Life long careers for anyone in the lower class is based on apprenticeship. We will write a custom essay sample on The Americanization of Ben Franklin or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Apprenticeship acts as a deterrent for anyone n the lowest social classes to advance throughout society professionally. Although Franklin seems to be placed as a candle and soap maker he finds a way with his very skilled, self-taught reading and writing skills to apprentice his brother In the prattling trade. The printing trade helps to define the way Benjamin Franklin forms his personality, and makes an impression on the community. During Franklins time as a printer, he becomes one of the best by being able to assume many different roles in his papers. He was a man of many voices and masks ho continually mocks himself. This skill most definitely comes in handy when he speaks with any person. He Is very charming when It comes to women and prominent figures of society, giving him an advantage In politics. An example of hulls charm would be how he impressed Cotton Matter, even though he had insulted him in his saturating in the Silence Dogwood Essays. After writing the Silence Dogwood Essays, the Massachusetts government shuts down the printing operation, because they did not like being disrespected. Printers could not speak and publish freely, especially when t came to poking fun at the religious community because they had a large role In Massachusetts.Franklin makes a move to Philadelphia so that he Is able to become sets of values that Franklin noticed and took advantage of. He knows that in Philadelphia he can write without any public prejudice because of Philadelphia religious freedom. Patronage being the basic means of social mobility2,had to be the next step for Franklin. Franklins patrons were very wealthy and helpful men that further introduced him to prominent figures of the society. Woods says, Franklin was ever quite as self-made as he sometimes implied3, but did he not have to impress those people in the first place?Franklins social skills were so beyond what his age might determine them to be. What seems to be a very fortunate patronage, could also be seen as Franklins self made popularity. One of the major steps in a mans life in the 18th century was becoming a gentleman or becoming part of the gentry. The word gentleman has a completely different meaning than that of the 20th century. The meaning of a gentleman was to be a very wealthy man, retired from business that could discuss the most intellectual f topics. Franklin was very careful in taking the next step to becoming a gentleman. He shows he is wary of certain flaws of trying to climb the social ladder too fast by saying, we below cannot help considering him as a Monkey that climbs a Tree, the higher he goes, the more he shows his Ears. 4 After accumulating all his wealth and becoming one of the most famous men in the American Colonies, Franklin eased his way into the title of gentleman and proceeded to move on to matters of science and observation so that he could further establish his self made title.

Saturday, November 30, 2019

The Rise of China

Abstract China’s swift rise in economic and political supremacy is considered among the most significant changes of the past three decades. The paper examines three research papers on China’s rise to political and economic dominance. The paper also scrutinizes research questions in each of the articles and establishes their validity.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The Rise of China specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The paper also explores role, limitation and interpretation of hypothesis testing in quantitative and qualitative research. Analysis from all the three research papers shows that China’s spiral growth and influence will continue and even surpass the United States. However, this will depend on China’s ability to manage both domestic and international challenges. Introduction Rapid rise in china’s political and economic strength in the last three decades has cr eated applause and uproar at the same time. The country’s vast population and territory had made it a potential powerhouse for centuries. However, China’s potential was not realised until the 1980s when they embarked on an ambitious program aimed at revitalizing its economy. While a section of the world has praised China for its rise in the global arena, others have grown sceptical of its methodologies of attaining global rise. In particular, the United States has been sceptical of china’s financial techniques utilized to manipulate the market (Altbach Wang, 2012). It is quite evident that China has been utilizing currency manipulation techniques to keep its economy afloat. This paper will utilize both qualitative and quantitative analysis to identify possible dangers of the fall of Chinese economy to the world. Moreover, the paper will explore the effects of China’s rise on the U.S. (Chellaney, 2012). Literature Review and Analysis China’s past t remendous growth is currently facing huge upheavals as it tries to balance its economy. On the other hand, its economic turmoil is also affecting the global economy because of its large share in international market. In addition, China’s its political decisions have also attracted criticism from world powers like the EU and the US. The Rise of China and the Future of the West The article above talks about China’s economic and political rise as well as its effects on western powers (Ikenberry, 2008). The author introduces hypothesis on whether the liberal system will survive. The article describes extraordinary economic growth that has defined China for the past three decades. Moreover, it entrenches on the diplomatic influence China has gained since its growth started. However, the author brings in a number of research questions on effects of China’s dominance.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get y our first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, he asks whether China’s rise will bring about a new order or if China will join the existing order. According to the author, Western order is quite easy to join than to overturn. In essence, if China has to create a new order, then it has a huge obstacle to overcome. According to Ikenberry, the United States created a farsighted leadership that integrated newly sovereign with established powers. In addition, its leadership brought global membership together as well as creating universal institutions that brought market societies and global democracies together. The author establishes that it would be difficult for China to overturn the existing world order (Ikenberry, 2008). The author also reminds the United States that it has the mandate to define the environment in which China operates. Moreover, he alludes that the United States must strengthen institutions that underpin the western order. The article outlines that the United States should give China incentives for integration to increase western order’s chances of survival. Later on, he asserts that if the struggle is between China and the United States, the former will win but if the struggle is between China and the Western system, the latter will triumph. The author uses data to back up his assertions that China is rising at a dramatic pace. For instance, the article shows that China had more than one trillion dollars as foreign reserves by the end of 2006. Moreover, the country’s military spending had increased to 18% with its diplomatic reach extending beyond Asia to Africa, Latin America and the Middle East. Additionally, the article articulates an important debate on China’s power since it is emerging as both an economical and a military power as opposed to Soviet Union, which only posed military opposition to the United States. With that, the article concurs that China’s rise poses a greater threat th an that posed by the USSR. The article gives a conclusive review of the strengths of western order including its rules and norms, which have enabled it to gain dominance. OECD projections show that China’s PPP will surpass the United States’ PPP by 2025. However, the same modelling shows that China’s defence expenditure, as a percentage of GDP will not surpass that of the United States by 2030. The article concludes that the U.S. cannot stop china’s rise although it can define the environment that China operates. Research question is detailed to support research objectives as provided in the article (Ikenberry, 2008).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The Rise of China specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Rise of China and the Interests of the United States The article by Carl Minzner provides a comprehensive scrutiny of China’s global emergence and its effects on US int erests. The article begins by reviewing the grinding Iraq war, which dominates the U.S politics. However, it goes right into context of the issue facing international politics, which is China’s steady rise. The author asserts that China’s growth is natural which conflicts most analysts views. It mentions the huge population of China at about 1.3 billion, which has experienced rapid growth over the past three decades. Moreover, the author claims that China’s expected rise would change the current geopolitical system that the United States has enjoyed for the past few decades. In fact, the author concurs that China’s dominance is not a matter of if but when, therefore, the United States should find ways of adapting to the expected global changes. Additionally, the article examines domestic issues that could derail china’s dominance. For instance, the article talks about the rising number of discontented rural farmers and migrants who could bring abou t revolution (Minzner, 2007). The author also concurs with other scholars that China is not seeking confrontation with the United States. Therefore, according to the article, the policies applied by the Chinese government regarding rapid growth, reduction of poverty among the poor and police controls are aimed at stopping potential revolution against the regime. However, the article also alludes to the existence of threat posed by China’s emergence to the United States. Tensions between the two states concern Taiwan and South China Sea but do not seem like direct military confrontation. The author views Chinese competition as a challenge and not a threat. Therefore, the article proposes that the U.S. gives China an active role in expanding existing institutions rather than isolate or intimidate it. Moreover, the article suggests that China should take an active role and responsibilities in shaping international crises like the ones in Sudan and North Korea. The article also s tresses the need for the U.S. to strengthen international norms and institutions as well as deal with the world’s most populous nation in a bipartisan manner. The article provides a detailed description of research problem (Minzner, 2007). China’s Peaceful Rise in the 21st Century The article examines the conditions and challenges that would allow for peaceful rise of China. Moreover, the article explores whether china can achieve global dominance without war. The article begins by stressing China’s huge economic and military potential backed by a vast population and territory.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The article examines opportunities and challenges that face the world’s most populous nation in its quest to rise. In particular, the article divides conditions into two groups namely, domestic and international conditions. In the first part, the article looks at the relationship between China’s deep reform and perceived peaceful progress. Jintao’s concept of peaceful development has been the basis of China’s diplomatic policy. However, the article raises research question of whether China’s perceived peaceful development would work in the wide context of international and domestic development. The article also looks at the china’s regime stability, as well as political legitimacy. In addition, the article explores the country’s hybrid regime and peaceful development. In the second section, the article examines international conditions to China’s peaceful rise. In this section, the author looks at relationship between China-US military. Moreover, it examines the geopolitical system in central Asia (Guo, 2007). The article utilizes comprehensive literature to provide interpretation based on China’s new progress. Moreover, it examines China’s ability to achieve global dominance without provoking war, as was the case in Germany and Japan. Moreover, the article tries to answer research question of how China deals with potential provocations as witnessed in currency manipulations and diplomacy. The article provided a comprehensive review of the implications of China’s strategic choices with regard to diplomatic and economic influence. The article is therefore important in answering research question on china’s ability to achieve peaceful global dominance. Statistical techniques utilized in the articles provide both qualitative and quantitative analysis of china’s potential global dominance (Guo, 2007). Role of Statistics in Research Statistics plays an important role in condu cting of research. Statistics provides avenues for data collection, analysis and recommendation based on the outcomes. Moreover, statistics provides unique problem questions that lead to a choice of research steps and classification. Statistical hypothesis test is essential in empirical research of both quantitative and qualitative research analysis. However, statistical tests also have limitations. For instance, hypothesis test rarely applies literally. Moreover, the complexity of reasoning based on uncertain data sometimes lead to misunderstanding and wrong application of the statistical tests. Moreover, most of the tests are based on random variability that is based on assumptions thereby creating a possibility of error. During interpretations, one should be aware of potential causes of errors since wrong assumptions can result in invalid conclusions Conclusion Statistical methods play an important role in qualitative and quantitative analysis, as well as other research methodolo gies. Statistical methods provide information, which are significant for analysis. Statistical hypothesis is the most commonly used statistical test in empirical research of social science. It evaluates data by contrasting null hypothesis with its alternative hypothesis. High values are considered to be for null hypothesis while low values are considered to be against null hypothesis. From the above articles, it can be noted that China’s rise is will continue although it will depend heavily on its approach to managing its domestic and international issues. In addition, The United states will have to accept the changes that arise from China’s emergence. However, the U.S. should ensure that China rises through accepted international standards defined by western order (Chen, 2012). Reference List Altbach, P., Wang, Q. (2012). Can China Keep Rising? Scientific American, 307(4), 46-47. Chellaney, B. (2012). Rising Powers, Rising Tensions: The Troubled China-India Relations hip. SAIS Review, 32(2), 99-108. Chen, G. (2012). The Art of Governance: Managing Rising Expectations. China Development and Governance, 22(1), 1-5. Guo, S. (2007). China’s â€Å"Peaceful Rise† in 21st Century: Domestic and International Conditions. The China Journal, 1(58), 228-230. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/20066356?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents Ikenberry, J. (2008). The Rise of China and the future of the West: Can the Liberal System Survive? Foreign affairs, 87(1), 23-37. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/20020265?origin=JSTOR-pdfseq=1#page_scan_tab_contents Minzner, C. (2007). The Rise of China and the Interests of the U.S. The Ripon Forum, 41(2). This research paper on The Rise of China was written and submitted by user Rodolfo G. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

7 Hardest College Classes

7 Hardest College Classes We’ve drudged through tons of online forums, social media networks, college websites and Google results to bring you the 7 hardest paths of knowledge the modern educational system has to offer. If you’re looking to tie your brain in a knot then you’ve come to the right place. We’re going to start with #7 and then work our way down to #1, and yes you guessed it, it has to do with math. #1: Rocket Science This is really more of a category than a class. The brainy genre encompasses many difficult math, physics and engineering courses that make the masses cringe. At the end of the day however, thanks to private space companies like Virgin Galactic, SpaceX and Blue Origin this subject is about to go mainstream. In a small matter of years we’ll be mining asteroids, colonizing Mars and building fleets of rockets for an emerging 21st century industry! The only reason Rocket Science places 7th on the list is because it’s still a fringe subject. The masses don’t really know if a new space age is about to begin or not. A tiny percentage of students are studying to become astronauts or rocket engineers right now but that’s probably going to change. #2: Beam Me Up: Quantum Mechanics/Physics Speaking of which†¦by the year 2050 this may start being taught in elementary schools, but until then this class is a real butt-kicker. Prepare to get really familiar with Einstein and the men and women who are advancing his theories and philosophies. Watch out, because it can get pretty abstract pretty fast. Prepare to have both hemispheres of your brain recruited to the umph-degree. #3: Let’s Get Metaphysical This isn’t PHIL 101 folks. We’re talking much deeper down the epistemological rabbit hole. The goal? To basically try understand the true nature of causation†¦to grapple with the differences between the subjective and objective universe/experience. Only those who seek the most profound of intellectual challenges dare take advanced Metaphysics. #4: Advanced Thermodynamics Most people think of weight loss these days when they hear the word thermodynamics. You know, â€Å"More energy out vs. calories in means you’ll get thinner!† It’s a bit more complicated than that. Rumor has it that Purdue University sports the hardest engineering courses in the land. In reality, studying the transference of heat on our plane is hard just about anywhere. Engineering is rough stuff, but it’s worth it! If you can handle it and keep your GPA high, you’re looking at potentially big $$$ upon graduation (or after internships). And, international appeal. Good engineers are in short supply everywhere but China and India pretty much. #5: Sigh†¦Economics Judging by the performance of central banks and Wall Street, current economic theory isn’t panning out so well (Keynesian). Maybe more people should study advanced economics? Well, over at Harvard (where many of our economic leaders study) Economics 1126 or the â€Å"Quantitative Methods in Economics† is a real challenge. If you choose to become an economist, please do a better job! Since when did it begin making sense to live in a debt=wealth world? So far it looks like mainstream economic theories of today are failing, mainly because they can’t adapt to the speed of technological innovation. Those who pass this class with flying colors are probably going to work in a think tank somewhere but collect a sizeable paycheck. #6: Organic Chemistry: The Doctor Destroyer Tons of people who believe they’re destined to be doctors one day see their dreams dashed and diverted by Organic Chemistry. For undergraduates, this is where you have to really take coffee and the library seriously. It’s often considered in hushed tones and whispers to be among the most difficult classes before you begin your post-graduate studies. Then of course we can talk about advanced physiology and anatomy classes as well, which are brutal. #7: Math Yep, just math in general. For many students algebra 101 feels like Organic Chemistry or Quantum Mechanics. It’s hard! Especially for the super-creative types that would rather write, paint and create than write out pages of equations for the purpose of†¦? So, what’s the hardest math class? That question was asked over at College Confidential and here’s some classes students talked about at length. Linear Algebra Complex Analysis Advanced Engineering Math Partial Differential Equations The Study of Algorithms The list goes on and on from there. That rabbit hole just keeps going and going like the Energizer Bunny created it. But there you have it ladies and gentlemen. Feel like conquering the highest and hardest levels of human knowledge. Now you know which classes to take. But let’s hear it, what do you think are the hardest classes at your college?

Friday, November 22, 2019

5 Tips for Writing the Michigan State Admissions Essay

5 Tips for Writing the Michigan State Admissions Essay SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips So you’ve decided to apply to Michigan State University. You’ve made a great choice- not only is it one of the top public universities in the nation, 95% of undergraduates land jobs or go onto graduate school after graduation! Additionally, 25 of its undergraduate programs are ranked in the top 20 nationally, including the best supply chain management and logistics program in the country. And like most top schools, the MSU application requires you to submit an application essay. This guide will walk you through everything you need to know about writing and submitting the Michigan State admissions essay, including: A discussion of the Michigan State admissions standards, Where to find the Michigan State application, and Five tips to write a Michigan State admissions essay that will get you in. So let’s get started! What Is the Michigan State Admissions Essay? The Michigan State essay is a required (and important!) element of your Michigan State application. The essay is basically a personal statement designed to help admissions counselors get to know you better. Sure, they’ll see your transcript and test scores, but Michigan State also wants to know who you are beyond the data, too. The essay is also important because Michigan State is a moderately competitive school that has an acceptance rate of 66%, which means that 66 out of 100 students who apply to MSU are admitted each year. That means your essay is a key part of an admissions counselor’s decision-making process. (If you’re not familiar with the school’s admissions requirements, be sure to check out this comprehensive guide on Michigan State’s admittance policies.) As we mentioned earlier, you’ll submit one finished essay as part of your complete Michigan State application packet. As of 2018, Michigan State requires prospective students to submit all their application materials- including the MSU essay- via the Common App or the Coalition App, which are online platforms that let you fill out one application and submit it to multiple universities. Luckily for you, Michigan State doesn’t require you to fill out an additional application supplement. In other words, the Michigan State admissions essay is the same essay you’ll fill out for either the Common App or the Coalition App! But that also means that you only have one chance to help MSU’s admissions counselors determine whether you’re a good fit for the university. Now that you have a general idea about what the Michigan State admissions essay is and how to submit it, here are three final, important things to keep in mind: #1: MSU doesn’t favor one application over the other. They treat Common App and Coalition App submissions equally in their decision-making process. (If you’re still not sure which application to use, here’s a comprehensive guide that helps you choose the right one for you!) #2: You can only submit one application per academic year. So if you have both applications filled out, send one or the other- not both. Sending two applications can cause errors in the admissions system and lead to your application getting rejected. #3: The Common App and the Coalition App have different prompts. Each application asks slightly different questions, so it’s important to pick the application that allows you to write the strongest essay. Now it’s time to take a closer look at the different Common App and Coalition App prompts and give you some general tips for picking the best MSU essay prompt for you. The Common App Essay Prompts 1. Some students have a background, identity, interest, or talent that is so meaningful they believe their application would be incomplete without it. If this sounds like you, then please share your story. 2. The lessons we take from obstacles we encounter can be fundamental to later success. Recount a time when you faced a challenge, setback, or failure. How did it affect you, and what did you learn from the experience? 3. Reflect on a time when you questioned or challenged a belief or idea. What prompted your thinking? What was the outcome? 4. Describe a problem you've solved or a problem you'd like to solve. It can be an intellectual challenge, a research query, an ethical dilemma-anything that is of personal importance, no matter the scale. Explain its significance to you and what steps you took or could be taken to identify a solution. 5. Discuss an accomplishment, event, or realization that sparked a period of personal growth and a new understanding of yourself or others. 6. Describe a topic, idea, or concept you find so engaging that it makes you lose all track of time. Why does it captivate you? What or who do you turn to when you want to learn more? 7. Share an essay on any topic of your choice. It can be one you've already written, one that responds to a different prompt, or one of your own design. For the Common App, you’re given seven essay prompts and asked to answer one. The prompts themselves fall into a few general categories: Overcoming a challenge Solving a problem Showing personal growth Sharing your interests and personality This list gives you a general sense for what admissions counselors expect to see in your essay. You will likely only discuss one or two of these in a prompt, so don’t worry about having to address every single category in your response. Having to choose just one prompt can be pretty overwhelming- it’s hard to know where to start! Here are some things you can do to make picking a topic easier. Read through this guide that explains each prompt. Getting an expert explanation on each prompt can help you pick one that works for you. Eliminate the prompts you don’t like- or don’t understand. Go with your gut...as long as your gut doesn’t make you cross every option off your list. Consider the categories. Take a look at the general categories we have listed above, and think back to the essays you did well on in school. Is there a category you feel most comfortable writing about? If so, pick a prompt that aligns with that topic. Keep in mind that no matter the topic you choose, the Common App limits your response to 250 to 650 words. It’s harder to write shorter responses, so make sure you plan ahead and give yourself plenty of time to write a great essay. The Coalition App Essay Prompts Tell a story from your life, describing an experience that either demonstrates your character or helped to shape it. Describe a time when you made a meaningful contribution to others in which the greater good was your focus. Discuss the challenges and rewards of making your contribution. Has there been a time when you’ve had a long-cherished or accepted belief challenged? How did you respond? How did the challenge affect your beliefs? What is the hardest part of being a teenager now? What’s the best part? What advice would you give a younger sibling or friend (assuming they would listen to you)? Submit an essay on a topic of your choice. As you can see, the Common App and Coalition App provide slightly different essay prompts. You’ll still submit one essay, though the Coalition App gives you two fewer prompts to choose from. Like the Common App, the Coalition App prompts fall into a few general categories: Sharing your interests or personality Helping others and/or your community Facing challenges Experiencing personal growth So not only are the essay prompts themselves differ from the Common App, the Coalition App’s response categories are also a little different. (Here’s another helpful tip: looking at the response categories and comparing them to the Common App’s can be a good way of helping you to decide which application is right for you.) So now that you’ve seen the Coalition App prompts, how do you choose one? Here are some tips for picking the best Coalition App prompt for you: Make a list of life’s meaningful moments. What are the top ten life-changing experiences of your life? Jot these down. Keep in mind they don’t have to be huge- sometimes the smallest things make the biggest impact. Now look at the list. Do any of those stories fit with a prompt? Do a timed writing. Write down each topic on a separate sheet of paper. Set a timer and give yourself five minutes to write whatever comes to mind about each prompt. When you’ve done that for all five prompts, look to see if one topic inspired you more than the others. Read a walk-through of each essay topic. A little bit of expert guidance can help you better understand how to answer each prompt. No matter which prompt you choose, you’ll have limited space for your response. Unlike the Common App, the Coalition Application does not give a firm word count, though their website recommends you limit your essay length to 500 to 550 words. That’s slightly shorter than the maximum limit for the Common App essays, so keep that in mind if you struggle with essay length. Image courtesy of Joel Dinda 5 Tips for Writing a Killer Michigan State Admissions Essay By now you’ve had a chance to consider- and hopefully choose!- the perfect MSU essay prompt. Here are our top five tips for writing a Michigan State University essay that makes you stand out from the crowd! Be authentic. Jim Cotter, the Director of Undergraduate Admissions for Michigan State University, says being authentic is the most important element of a strong Michigan State essay. He explains, â€Å"We don’t want a student to create something that they’re not. We want them to tell us who they are, what their real experiences are, and how they’ve developed as an individual because of those experiences.† In other words, tell the truth...and be yourself! Tell a story. To write a stand-out MSU essay examples are key. That’s why it’s important to use storytelling to help answer the prompt! For example, if you want to talk about a time you gave back to the community, tell a story about a specific event (like shaving your head for charity)! Be descriptive. This ties into our â€Å"tell a story† tip above. Details are what make a story come alive! If you’re writing about a challenging time in your life, do more than just tell the reader what happened. Show them where you were, what you saw, and how you felt by using descriptive language. Write long, edit short. Staying within word limits can be hard. That’s why we recommend you don’t worry about essay length when you write your first draft. Just focus on getting your answer down on paper even if you go hundreds of words over the maximum length. Then you can focus on whittling your essay down until you land in the word count sweet spot. Embrace the 3 R’s. Re-read, revise, and review. Never, ever submit the first draft of your essay! Even the best writers in the world revise their work multiple times. Also, don’t be afraid to ask your parents and teachers to give you feedback on your work. They’ll be able to give you a new, fresh perspective on your work! Your Next Steps If you’re looking to beef up your rà ©sumà © to make sure you’re one of MSU’s ideal candidates, try fitting some community service into your schedule. Here’s a list of the nine best places to do community service, and here’s a discussion of how volunteering benefits both your college application and your life!One key piece of your application are letters of recommendation, so you need to ask for those as soon as possible. Check out this guide that goes over how- and when!- to ask for letters of recommendation. Now that you’re ready to write your essays, get the skinny on how to write the perfect application essay introduction. Want to write the perfect college application essay? Get professional help from PrepScholar. Your dedicated PrepScholar Admissions counselor will craft your perfect college essay, from the ground up. We'll learn your background and interests, brainstorm essay topics, and walk you through the essay drafting process, step-by-step. At the end, you'll have a unique essay that you'll proudly submit to your top choice colleges. Don't leave your college application to chance. Find out more about PrepScholar Admissions now:

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Freedom of Information Act Question 1 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Freedom of Information Act Question 1 - Essay Example The third benefit is ensuring order in the firms that the information is to be accessed. The firms will ensure that the information is kept according to stipulated standards (Mark, 2011). The risks associated with the freedom do information are as the following. First, there are cases of bureaucracy in the process of preparing the information in an effort to meet the requirements. The managers are forced to prepare the information so as to see the desires of the different users of the information that it causes time wastage. The second risk is the exposing of the institution’s information that may be used by the competitors against the government. The users may also be exposed to manipulated information by the managers so as to influence their decisions. There is no platform that guarantees the quality of information provided by the firm. There might be cases where the firms provide the information that has not been scrutinized for relevance (Mark, 2011). For efficient functioning and administration of the act there is a need for few adjustments. The following are amongst the recommendations to make. First the one month limit of waiting for a response from the agency should be reduced to a maximum of twenty days so as to create efficiency within the system. A situation where more time is given those in charge always to relax that it causes higher costs to the firm which would have been reduced if a strict deadline if fixed (Freedom of Information Act guide & Privacy Act overview,1999). Another avenue is for the act to encourage the administrators of the different firms to make use of the social media platforms to post any relevant information. The social media has become one of the cheapest means of communicating among the different people in different parts of the world (Freedom of Information Act guide & Privacy Act

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Nursing research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Nursing - Research Paper Example The p value is less than 0.001 which indicates that the data obtained are statistically significant. This, therefore, means that one should decrease their caloric intake; to maintain a low BMI because a high BMI puts one at a risk of getting lifestyle diseases such as high blood pressure and type 2-diabetes. 2) There is a very strong link between BMI and HDL cholesterol because according to the results, the correlation coefficient is very close to -1.00 (0.794). The relationship is however negative meaning as the BMI of an individual increases, the level of HDL cholesterol decreases. The p value is also less than 0.001 meaning that the results are statistically significant. Since it is healthy to have high HDL cholesterol levels, one should, therefore, aim at reducing their BMI to acceptable levels. 3) The relationship between the caloric intake and age of the respondents is not strong as indicated by the correlation coefficient (0.129) which is neither close to 1.00 nor - 1.00. The corresponding p value (0.588) also supports the results since it is far much greater than 0.001 indicating that the degree of significance is very low. 4) Using correlations as a statistical test has got several shortcomings. The correlation does not mean a cause-and-effect link between variables and so cannot be used for certain research questions which seek to determine that kind of relationship (Munro, 2005). For instance, it does not show if an increased caloric intake leads to a high BMI or high BMI causes one to take fewer calories. It also quantifies only the strength of the linear relationship and does not provide other details concerning the relationship between the variables. Correlations are also bivariate meaning they only compare two variables from two data sets at a time which may increase chances of making errors since this rarely occurs in reality (Trochim, 2006). This makes it unsuitable for researchers looking for interconnected relationships

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Management Essay Example for Free

Management Essay Your safety is important, updates have successfully prepared the enclosed form to report identity theft to creditors. Would you mind going to our website to fill out the customer information so that your order can be processed with our new database software? We are now offering RapidAssist, a software program that provides immediate technical support through our website to your employees and customers. To provide better service, a new software named RapidAssist is now offered to provide you with immediate technical support from our website to employees and customers e. To provide you with easy access to the new parking lot, a new restriction policy has been activated for â€Å"A† vehicle permits. The credit union now prohibits the cashing of double –endorsed checks presented by our customers to make sure you don’t suffer monetary losses. Our warranty goes into effect when we have receive the product’s registration card from the purchaser to supply you guaranteed protections. To help better your systems, we will be shutting down both systems Thursday afternoon to install upgrades. Regarding your request, the items listed above (printer toner and supplies) are being sent to your Oakdale office, referring to your telephone conversation on April 1. Kindly inform the subscriber whether or not your spokesman will be making an appearance in the near future. c. It is outstanding that we still managed the contract after the customer increased his demands, however our manager responded with better transitions. By the way, we had some errors in the schedule but don’t have to erase everything and start from the beginning. To ease the confirmation of this agreement, your negotiators push that the membership respond in the favorable. Our head manager was upset because I was sick in the time of the team meeting.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Heinz Halms Shia Islam: from Religion to Revolution Essay -- essays

Heinz Halm’s â€Å"Shi’a Islam: From Religion to Revolution†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In his 176-page volume, the leading German Islamist, Heinz Halm is able to trace the roots of the Iranian Revolution back throughout the history of the Shi’ism. Contrary to many western thinkers and Iranian militants, Halm feels as though Shi’i Islam’s character was not inherently revolutionary, but that the transition to revolution marked a milestone and a watershed in the history of Shi’i thought and history. The title of his book, â€Å"Shi’a Islam: From Religion to Revolution† really synopsizes Halm’s point quite adequately. Heinz Halm is currently a professor of Islamic Studies at the University of Tubingen and is the author of numerous other works on Sunni Islam, Shi’ism and Isma’ilism. Some of his works include: â€Å"The Empire of the Mahdi†, â€Å"The Rise of the Fatimids†, and â€Å"Shi’ism†.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Shi’a Islam: From Religion to Revolution† is broken up into three sections, which play their respective parts in relaying Halm’s message. Part 1 deals directly with the origins of Shi’ism and is labeled â€Å"The House of Sorrows: The Twelve Imams.† In this section Halm attributes Abu Miknaf’s report of the Campaign of the Penitents or tawwabun to be of the key documents that allows us to understand the emergence of early Shi’ism. Halm went as far as to say that Abu Miknaf’s text and, therefore what is related in it, â€Å"already demonstrated all the essential elements that characterize the Shi’i religion today.† He went on to say that the â€Å"self accusations of the partisans†¦peaked in acknowledgement of their own shame and their desire to atone for this (the massacre at Karbala) with death.† Halm’s thesis in this section is that self-sacrifice characteristic of the Shi’is was exemplified, and even developed in this march of the tawwabun. And, this particular characteristic was politically instrumentalized during the revolution of 1979 and during the war with Iraq. Further, Halm traces the non-political character of the following Imams, especially Ja’far Assadiq. Halm further delves into the roles that the Fourteen Infallible Ones played in Shi’i theology, and as well the significance of the Occultation of the Twelfth Imam. He expresses that with the absence of the Twelfth Imam there was a lapse in the duties of the Imam, which over time had to be taken over by ‘ulama. ... ...ut the monopolistic position of the mujtahids and their claim to be emulated by their followers. Eventually the Akbaris would fade out into the periphery and by the nineteenth century the Usulis managed to gain widespread acceptance throughout the Shi’i world, and Halm claims that it had a key impact in transforming the role of the ‘ulama. The transformation, however, that Halm refers to occurred in the hands of Khumayni and Ali Shari’ati who managed to develop a â€Å"modern revolutionary ideology wrapped in traditional Shi’i images and symbols.† Shari’ati and his fellow idealogues, Halm claims, were guilty of dismissing fourteen hundred years of history and their goals were inherently very ahistoric and utopian. The de-ritualization of the ‘Ashura customs and elimination of the eschatological expectations of the Mahdi were responsible in transforming the Shi’i doctrine into a revolutionary ideology. Halm concludes by saying that revolutions do not develop from religious causes, but have political, economic and social triggers. And, like all modern revolutionary movements, the Iranian Revolution played upon a manipulated re-writing of history to benefit the momentum of the movement.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Madonna’s Sex Book Essay

?According to Giselle Benatar of  Entertainment Weekly, there are two versions of how Madonna came up with the idea for the book. One was that she conceived the idea of an erotic photography book during the shooting of the film  A League of Their Own  in the summer of 1991. [1]  The second one is that  Judith Regan, vice-president and  editor-in-chief  of  Simon & Schuster, flew to  Los Angeles  in March 1991 to meet with Madonna and her manager  Freddy DeMann, armed with a proposal for a similar collection of photo-erotica. [1]  The singer had initially verified whether Regan had approached any other celebrities with this concept, as Madonna would be interested to be a part of it only if it was a unique idea. [2]  By the end of the meeting Madonna had agreed â€Å"in principle† to do a book called  Madonna’s Book of Erotica and Sexual Fantasies. She told Regan that DeMann would call her and work out the details regarding the book. [3][4]  However, Madonna never got back in touch with Regan, who assumed that the singer did not want to proceed with the idea. [1]  Madonna’s publicist Liz Rosenberg never confirmed nor denied Regan’s claim, but according to Benatar, Madonna started working on  Sex  before wrapping up  A League of Their Own. [1]  At firstWarner Bros. Records  and the executive directors at  Time Warner  were reluctant to allow Madonna to publish such a book, but finally gave in to the idea. Madonna, however, was forced to sign a contract that forbade her from showing  child pornography,  bestiality  and  religious imagery. [1]  Not long after signing this agreement Madonna founded  Maverick, a multi-media entertainment company. Since by contract she had total artistic control over any of the work released by Maverick, the agreement she signed with Time Warner concerning what not to do in  Sex  became obsolete. [5][6][7] Some of the pictures for the project were shot at  Hotel Chelsea, New York. Other locations included Times Square’s all-male burlesque  Gaiety Theatre. Originally to be titled  X, Madonna changed her mind when  Spike Lee’s film  Malcolm X  began to be promoted. (The film was released three weeks after the book. ) She would go on to tell  Vogue  magazine: â€Å"This is a really good symbol, and I thought of it first. â€Å"[8]  Warner Bros. commented that  Sex  was very difficult to produce, requiring contributions from many different printing and publishing companies. [9]  They also stated that in order to generate any profit, the book would have to sell at least 350,000 copies. [10][11]  Madonna hired top-notch talent for the development of the book;[12]  she counted on the help of friends from the music, film and fashion industry. [9]  The singer hired  Fabien Baron  as the art director,[13]  fashion photographer  Steven Meisel, editor  Glenn O’Brien, make-up artist Francois Nars and hairstylist Paul Cavaco. [1][6][14]  The  Sex  book had a range of influences – from punk rock to earlier fashion iconoclasts like  Guy Bourdin  and his surrealism, and  Helmut Newton, in its stylized, sado-masochistic look. [15]  Madonna originally wanted the book to be of an oval shape in order to simulate a  condom  but the printing and manufacturing of such a book would have been too expensive. Meisel would later comment: â€Å"Madonna and I can keep up with each other† and that â€Å"I’m doing things to make people think too. It’s not really to antagonize or to push people’s buttons. It’s really to present another way of seeing things. â€Å"[1] The pictures were taken almost entirely in  Super 8  format, and most of the photo shoots took place in  New York City  and  Miami. Locations in New York City included the  Hotel Chelsea  and Times Square’s all-male burlesque  Gaiety Theatre  (dancers from theatre participated in one of the book’s photo sessions), whereas in Miami the majority of the sessions were shot at a house Madonna had purchased just before starting the project, and in several beaches and streets. [1][5][16]  One morning during the four-day Florida shoot Madonna was prancing around her 14-bedroom house in Miami completely naked, when someone jokingly suggested she go out on the street, then, according to Baron â€Å"the next thing we’re in the street† where allegedly â€Å"cars screeched to a halt, motorists whistled, and one entranced cyclist fell off his bike. â€Å"[1]  This was just one of the many crazy episodes that took place during the shooting of the book. According to Baron, during the photo shoots â€Å"[Madonna]’d do something crazy and then we’d come up with something even crazier†. One of the most shocking photographs made for the book, which featured two women in  post-punk  attire flanking Madonna with one of them holding a knife to Madonna’s crotch, was dismissed as it was considered too violent. At some point, while the book was being produced, some of the photographs were stolen, but were quickly recovered by the  FBI. [1]  According to  New York  magazine, there were approximately 80,000  photographs taken for the book,[17]  but only a handful made the final cut. [1]  The printing of the book was extended for 15  days[11]  making the total production process last about eight months. [18] Design and content[edit] The picture shows the leather string worn by Madonna in theSex  book, as well as in the â€Å"Erotica† music video. Below the string, an image from the book can also be seen. Wrapped and sealed in a  Polyethylene terephthalate  (PET) Mylar bag,[19][20][21]  Sex  contains 128  pages and is  spiral bound  with an  aluminium  cover that has the word â€Å"Sex† stamped in the middle[14][22]  and a warning label. [23]  The front page also shows Madonna against a sky blue backdrop. [22]  Three different types of paper were used for the printing of  Sex  and the design was overseen by Madonna and Baron & Baron Inc. (consisting of Fabien Baron and the photographer Siung Fat Tjia) who had previously collaborated with the singer designing the cover art of her fifth studio album,  Erotica. [11][24]  As this was the first project for Maverick, the packaging was crucial; however Madonna did not have faith in Warner Book’s â€Å"mass-market† publication process. Hence Baron suggested to transfer the packaging job to Nicholas Callaway’s bespoke Callaway Editions. [25]  Charles Melcher, co-publisher with Callaway for the book, said that they usually did â€Å"exquisite art books, $100 high end, beautiful things†. But it was a challenge for them to process Madonna’s ideas into reality. The artist wanted the packaging to be sealed, so that the reader had to tear it up and read. [25]  They considered various kinds of clasps before zeroing on the idea of the sealed bag as a reference to a condom package. The metal cover was Madonna’s idea, who took the inspiration from the 1979 album,  Metal Box  by  post-punk  band  Public Image Ltd. [26]  Melcher recollects, â€Å"We were talking about materials for the cover, and we went into her kitchen. [Madonna] pointed at the metal plate at the back of her stove and said, ‘I want something like this’. I was very impressed with the way she interacted with her world to source things. â€Å"[26]  The company bought about 1,500,000 pounds (680,000  kg) of aluminium, a pound for each book. The designers had to do the front and the back covers, while rolling, stamping and ionizing the metal. [26] The book opens up with the introduction: â€Å"Everything you are about to see and read is a fantasy, a dream, pretend†. [27]  Throughout  Sex, Madonna offers  poems, stories, and  essays. [5]  She also uses the  pseudonym†Mistress Dita† as a homage to German actress  Dita Parlo; her friends in these stories are Bunny, Dex, Stella, Chiclet and Stranger. [3][28]  According to biographer  J. Randy Taraborrelli, a big part of the book is read as a letter to a  pornographic magazine. [3]  As a thank you for recovering the stolen pictures during the making of the book, in the credits of the book Madonna mentioned the FBI for † †¦ rescuing photographs that would have made  J. Edgar Hoover  roll over. â€Å"[14][29]  Madonna also wanted to explore the notion of power in  Sex. Melcher said that the artist wanted to talk about â€Å"gentle and hard, soft and violent [in  Sex]. She was playing out all those elements in her book. That was reflected in the materials: uncoated, soft paper on the inside and hard metal coating on the outside. â€Å"[25] Just like the text—which was mostly written on top of photographs—the photographs on the book are highly sexual and depict  nudity, simulations of sexual acts,  bondage,  homosexuality  and  analingus, with accessories such as knives, whips, masks and chains[5][17][30][31]  although full  intercourse  is never shown. [14]  Aside from unknown models, featured in the book are actress  Isabella Rossellini, rappers  Big Daddy Kane  and Madonna’s then boyfriend  Vanilla Ice,[18]  model  Naomi Campbell,[32]  gay porn star  Joey Stefano,[10]  actor  Udo Kier, socialite  Tatiana von Furstenberg, and nightclub owner Ingrid Casares; however theheterosexual  photos in the book involve only Madonna and Vanilla Ice. [14]  Madonna herself is featured partially or completely naked. One of the book’s most famous photographs shows Madonna  hitchhikingcompletely naked in Miami. [3]  The book also reflects a great part on Dita’s perspective towards her own sexuality. Dita writes in  Sex  that her â€Å"pussy† is a temple of learning[33]  and that exposing it, is really a homage to it (â€Å"It’s hard to describe it smells like a baby to me fresh and full of life. I love my pussy, it is the complete summation of my life†). [34]  Sex  contains statements like â€Å"ass fucking  is the most pleasurable way to get fucked and it hurts the most too†. [3]  Others include â€Å"[t]here is something comforting about being tied up. Like when you were a baby and your mother strapped you in the car seat. She wanted you to be safe. It was an act of love†[20]  and â€Å"I wouldn’t want a penis. It would be like having a third leg. it seems like a contraption that would get in the way. I think I have a dick in my brain†. [20][31]  In  Sex, Dita also pointed out that â€Å"A lot of people are afraid to say what they want. That’s why they don’t get what they want†. [35]  The book includes Madonna’s perspective on  pornography: â€Å"I don’t see how a guy looking at a naked girl in a magazine is degrading to women. Everyone has their sexuality. It’s how you treat people in everyday life that counts, not what turns you on in your fantasy. If all a person ever did was get off on porno movies I would say they are probably dysfunctional sexually, but I don’t think it’s unhealthy to be interested in that or get off on that. I’m not interested in porno movies because everybody is ugly and faking it and it’s just silly. They make me laugh, they don’t turn me on. A movie like  In the Realm of the Senses  turns me on because it’s real. I’ve been told there are some good  Traci Lords  movies but I’ve never seen them. I wouldn’t want to watch a  snuff movie. I wouldn’t want to watch anyone get really hurt, male or female. But generally I don’t think pornography degrades women. The women who are doing it want to do it. No one is holding a gun to their head. I don’t get that whole thing. I love looking at  Playboy  magazine because women look great naked. â€Å"[20] Release and promotion[edit] Rapper  Vanilla Ice  (left) and model  Naomi Campbell  (right) are among the celebrities that appeared in the book. Both appeared in explicit images along side Madonna. The initial preview of the book was met with a huge amount of controversy, as it showed a nude Madonna wearing a rabbit’s tail, shaving the  pubic hair  of a naked man, and cavorting outdoors with a dog, suggesting  bestiality. [8][17]  The Vatican  urged its people to boycott the release, saying that it was â€Å"morally intolerable†. [36]  Indian customs officials said that the book offended the country’s public morality. The  Press Trust of India  (PTI), India’s domestic news agency, quoted a top customs official as saying the book would be seized under a section of the Customs Act prohibiting entry of indecent literature. [37]  Citizens of  Alexandria, Virginia  filed a complaint with the city’s police department on behalf of a group called the Rapides Parish Chapter of American Family Association, claiming that it violated Louisiana’s anti-obscenity laws. [38]  South US Baptists did not want their Bibles coming off the same printing presses as Madonna’s  Sex  and threatened to stop doing business with a Chicago printer. The Nashville-based Baptist Sunday School Board, a division of the Southern Baptist Convention, reviewed their $2. 1  million ($3,529,215 in 2014 dollars[39]) printing contract with R. R. Donnelley & Sons. Board President James Draper said he was infuriated that Donnelley also printed â€Å"such an obscene book†. [40]Entertainment Tonight  reported that Madonna herself had initiated the mayhem with the explicit content in the music video for â€Å"Erotica†, walking bare breasted at designer Jean Paul Gaultier’s fashion show and posing nude in  Vanity Fair  magazine. [41]  A writer for  The Sacramento Bee  said that since the press wanted â€Å"controversy†, Madonna was willing to provide them â€Å"fodder† with her â€Å"antiques†. [42] Madonna then said she was â€Å"doing this to liberate America — free us all of our hang-ups†;[5]  she also revealed in a letter that â€Å"This book doesn’t tolerate risky sexual practices†. [3]  Nicholas Callaway from  Callaway Arts & Entertainment  said that the book was â€Å"inevitably going to be controversial. The book explores every aspect of sexual fantasy. It’s hard to calculate the effect, [but],  Sex  should be considered ‘art'†. [43]  Originally it was rumored that  Time Warner  was nervous about the release of the book; however, in an interview with  Vanity Fair, William Sarnoff, president of Warner Books, said he felt that Madonna â€Å"should pursue all avenues of creativity as she defines it†. The Warner company had also previously assured that they would make sureSex  reached its main  target audience  and also reminded that the book was safely wrapped in a Mylar bag to prevent in-store peeping and contained a warning label. [5]  Michael Kilian  of theChicago Tribune  published an article on October 7, 1992, regarding the then upcoming release of  Sex: â€Å"Prepare thyself, [†¦ ], The mega-event of the millennium is to occur in precisely two weeks. It’s an event far more mega than the November election, the collapse of communism or even the crowning of  Leanza Cornett  as the new  Miss America. † Kilian also described it as the â€Å"personal sexual fantasy picture book in all Christendom, then it goes far beyond all previous ‘truly twisted’ personal sexual fantasy picture books—perhaps beyond all imagining what such a book could be†. [43] On October 15, Madonna threw a pre-release party at New York City’s Industria Superstudio, and signed all the invitations under her  Sex  alter ego  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Dita†. [44][45]  During the party, Madonna showed up dressed as  Little Bo Peep  and even carried with her a stuffed toy lamb. [29]  Madonna’s publicist Liz Rosenberg showed concern at first due to â€Å"what the parents of America’s impressionable teens will soon be thinking† but later said that it â€Å"all depends on your idea of lovemaking, which in Madonna’s case, should give new meaning to the word erotic†. [5]  Both  Waldenbooks  and  Barnes & Noble  prepared corporate statements that the managers could share with customers who are offended by  Sex. (Both statements defended the right of bookstores to provide â€Å"diversity and choice† to customers and say censorship is not the role of bookstores. )[23]  Many book stores, too, stated that the book would not be sold to anyone under 18 and that it would be for display only behind the cash register. [5][23]Bookstore owner David Epstein stated that â€Å"The feeling of most people who have ordered the book is that Madonna is something special, that this is cutting-edge art, [†¦ ], they’re not the kind of people who are buying it because it’s smut and dirty pictures. People are interested in it as art. â€Å"[23] Sex  was finally released on October 21, 1992, by editorials Callaway and  Warner Books;[14][43][46][47]  it was also the first work released by Madonna’s company Maverick. [1][5]  To accompany its release, a  comic book  as well as a promotional single containing a stripped-down version of â€Å"Erotica†, titled â€Å"Erotic†, were made available. The book was released by Madonna as alongside her fifth studio album  Erotica, which had been released a day earlier. [5]  With an initial print run of one million copies of the first edition in five continents and in five languages,[47]  the price of the book was $50 ($84 in 2014 dollars[39]) at retail, making sex an â€Å"expensive visual book†. [43][46]  Nevertheless, the book managed to break records regarding the number of copies pre-ordered before the release. Nicholas Callaway pointed out that the book was an unprecedented hit, because the print run of an average art book ranges between 5 and 10,000  units. [11]  He described it as â€Å"the largest initial release of any illustrated book in publishing history†. [10][11] Due to the high scandal and controversy surrounding the book, there wasn’t really any need for Madonna to promote it;[30]  however, one of the few promotions for the book Madonna did, was appearing on the cover of the October edition of  Vogue, where she appeared dressed in â€Å"Hippie trip† fashion. These photographs were taken by Meisel. [48]  After the book was released, on October 22, 1992,  MTV  aired a special called  The Day in Madonna, hosted by  Kurt Loder  (the title of this special was a pun of the title of the channel’s daily show  The Day in Rock), which profiled the release of Madonna’s  Sex  and her album  Erotica, even taking the book to the streets to allow people, including a sex therapist and group of real-life New York Citydominatrices, to view it. MTV also interviewed many people who had viewed the book on the day of its release at the HMV music store in New York City. In celebration of the release of the book, the store held a Madonna look-alike contest and set up a booth where people could view the book for one dollar a minute, with all of the proceeds going to Lifebeat, the music industry organization founded to help fund AIDS research. [9] Critical and commercial reception[edit] â€Å"I don’t think sex is bad. I don’t think nudity is bad. I don’t think that being in touch with your sexuality and be able to talk about it is bad. I think the problem is that everyone is so uptight about it and have turned it into a bad thing when it’s not, if people could speak freely, we would have more people practicing safe sex, we wouldn’t have people being sexually abused. † —Madonna discussing the negative backlash surrounding the book. [12] The book received negative reaction from critics,[47][49][50][51]  conservative and  feminist  Ã¢â‚¬Å"anti-porn† groups,[1][52]  due to its sexually explicit photographs which many characterized as â€Å"hardcore pornography†. [53]  Taraborrelli opined that much of the book appears surprising and not shocking. [54]  He derided the whole concept as childish and impetuous rather than an adult book. According to him, though Madonna insisted that she was trying to demystify sexuality altogether, the author believed she just wanted to publish pornographic text and pictures and get away with it. â€Å"She was being a brat, not a revolutionary†, the author concluded. [54]  Author  Lucy O’Brien  declared that the book was a bold, harrowing exercise in frustration, and despite Madonna’s attempt at invincibility, the book appeared as â€Å"a curious act of self-destruction†. [55]†The overwhelming effect of the book is numbing,† complained  Rolling Stone. â€Å"The images are derivative, and Madonna herself seems far too eager to shock; that, not even prurient arousal, seems the ideal response the book tirelessly seeks. The potency of  Sex’s subject matter is dissipated by Madonna and Meisel’s self-congratulatory – and silly – sense of their own ‘bravery,’ as if their naughty games were somehow revolutionary. â€Å"[56] Roger Catlin from the  Hartford Courant  said that the passages from the book were â€Å"too dirty to quote here, even the funny ones†. [8]  The Daily Beast  said that â€Å"the book is neither groundbreaking (save that it features a major star) nor particularly sexy [†¦ ]  Sex  is convincing only when it’s playful, as when she appears nude in a Miami pizzeria, chewing a slice while a baffled customer looks on. Elsewhere, she’s simply undressed with no place to go†. [19]  Richard Harrington from  The Washington Postgave the book a mixed review by saying: â€Å"Is  Sex  shocking? not really. Mostly because it’s Madonna, and somehow we’ve come to expect this from her. Is  Sex  boring? actually, yes†. [18]  During her review of the book, British author  Zoe Heller  from  The Independent  wrote that it was â€Å"the women who once saw Madonna as a witty feminist role model who have been most alarmist about her latest pornographic incarnation† and that â€Å"previously, they say, Madonna played with traditional images of feminine sexuality in a subversive, ’empowering’ way. But now, with sado-masochism and rape fantasies, she has gone too far. â€Å"[34]  Calvin Tomkins, author and  art critic  for  The New Yorker, wrote that â€Å"unfortunately, the book is going to be mistaken for  pornography†. [57]  In his review,  Ed Anger, columnist for  Weekly World News  said that: â€Å"Madonna may be the best singer in the world today, but she has no right to take off her clothes in her book†. [58]  Vanity Fair  deemed it â€Å"the dirtiest coffee table book to ever be published†. [12]  Caryn James from  The New York Times  was negative in her review stating that â€Å"There is plenty here to offend the meek (whips and chains), the self-righteous (gay men and lesbians), not to mention the tasteful (a tacky and cluttered art design)†. [14]  Vicki Goldberg  from the same newspaper was also dismissive of the photography of the book saying that â€Å"Unfortunately, not many of the images are very good photographically. Many are just pictures, or just porn†. [47] Despite all the controversy and negative backlash, which included the book being banned in Japan shortly after its release,[59]  Sex  proved to be a commercial success, selling 150,000  copies on its release day in the United States alone. [60]  Hundreds of copies of the book were pre-ordered, prompting book sellers to say that  Sex  was â€Å"shattering their sales records for advance purchases†. [61]  A week later, the book’s sales exceeded the 500,000  units[1]  and eventually topped  The New York TimesBest Seller list. [18]  Giselle Benatar wrote in her article â€Å"Sex & Money†: â€Å"This isn’t the publishing event of the year, it’s the publishing event of the century. â€Å"[1]  A day earlier, Tyra Braden from  The Morning Call  wrote that she and some friends concluded that the book â€Å"might become a collector’s item a few years down the road†. [22]  In just three days, the book had managed to sell more than 1. 5  million copies worldwide. [1] Social impact and aftermath[edit]. Madonna’s performances inThe Girlie Show World Tour  faced negative reactions from conservative groups who deemed the singer immoral. Dubbed at the time â€Å"The Queen of obscene†,[62]  Madonna and the  Sex  era is considered by many as the artist’s most controversial and transgressive period. [63][64]  The book, widely panned by the press, is regarded as one of the factors that shaped the social reaction and critique towards Madonna during the early 1990s. [31]  Her fifth studio album  Erotica  was affected by the negative press surrounding the book. [65]  In March 1993Spin  magazine wrote an article praising the book,[66]  but months later in  Mexico,  social communicologist  Nino Canun presented a  television special  called  ? Y Usted que Opina? (en: And what’s your opinion? ), where the audience, among them a  priest, presented their arguments as to why â€Å"this morally clueless singer shouldn’t perform in the country†, making reference to the then upcoming  Girlie Show World Tour  which was set to visit Mexico. Later, during her concert in Mexico, Madonna wore a  charro  sombrero  and simulated an  orgy  with her dancers onstage, as a response to these comments. [67]  Continuing her provocative imagery, Madonna starred in the erotic thriller  Body of Evidence, which featured the singer fully nude and in scenes engaged in simulated sexual acts. [68]  In March 1994,  Madonna appeared as a guest  on the  Late Show with David Letterman, using profanity that was required to be censored on television and handing Letterman a pair of her underwear and asking him to smell it. [69]  The releases of her sexually explicit film, album and book, and the aggressive appearance on Letterman all made critics regard Madonna as a sexual renegade. She faced strong negative publicity from critics and fans, who commented that â€Å"she had gone too far† and that her career was over. [70]  Later on the song â€Å"Human Nature† from her sixth studio album  Bedtime Stories  (1994), Madonna addressed the public backlash the book was still receiving, particularly with the lines â€Å"Did I say something wrong? Oops, I didn’t know I couldn’t talk about sex. I must have been crazy,† as well as the line â€Å"What was I thinking? â€Å". [31] The perfect iconic goddess of  True Blue  had all gone. In the same way that sixties beauties like  Nico,  Marianne Faithfull  and  Brigitte Bardot  set about destroying their beauty after they were famous, the very thing they felt limited them, Madonna annihilated hers. Within a few short years she moved from teasing flirtation to desperate sexual display. It is ironic that after the triumph of  Like a Prayer, she hits this bathos. Being a blond again set her off in the wrong direction. It was as if with the  Sex  book she showed the underside of the Hollywood dream —Lucy O’Brien,  Madonna: Like an Icon, page. 254[71] Madonna herself would later say: â€Å"I wouldn’t say I regret it. I’ve made mistakes and learned from them. Most people want to hear me say that I regret publishing my  Sex  book. I don’t. What was the problem was releasing my  Erotica  album at the same time. I love that album and it got overlooked. â€Å"[72][73]  However, author Andy Koopmans in his book  Madonna  (2002) would comment that the singer regretted both publishingSex  and recording  Erotica  and that the book â€Å"had affected everything she did later†. [74]  It was not until 2003 that Madonna would once again declare that she regretted nothing; â€Å"I’m not apologising in any shape or form [†¦] I was interested in pushing buttons and being rebellious and being mischievous and trying to bend the rules. There was a lot of irony in the  Sex  book and I am poking fun at a lot of things and I am being kind of silly and adolescent and I am being very f you, if a man can do it, I can do it. â€Å"[75]  A year earlier on 2002, Naomi Campbell confessed to â€Å"have a lot of respect for Madonna being bold enough to come out and do a book on sex. I’ve never reneged on that†. [76]  However in 2009, rapper Vanilla Ice, who was Madonna’s boyfriend at the time of the book’s creation, confessed to not being happy with the book once he saw it. â€Å"My friends were like, ‘Dude, that’s cool man’, but I was like, ‘I’m dating her, it’s not cool to see your girlfriend with all these other people’ [†¦ ] It kinda ruined the whole thing. I wonder what her kids think of that book? Here she is writing kids’ books now but they’re going to see it and go, ‘Mommy, what were you thinking? ‘†[77]Another of the book’s models, actress Isabella Rossellini, told  Out  magazine that she regretted her participation on the book; â€Å"I don’t think the book worked, even though the photos were extraordinary, and some of them quite memorable. I think there was a little bit of a moralistic sort of ‘I’ll teach you how to be free! ‘ – and that bothered the hell out of me. â€Å"[78] Later reviews towards  Sex  have become more positive. The authors of  The Porning of America: The Rise of Porn Culture, What It Means, and Where We Go from Here  (2008) have commented that â€Å"the book is particularly interesting in the way that, like many of Madonna’s works, it portrays sex in terms of domination and power†,[31]  whereas Jane Raphaely, editor-in-chief of  Cosmopolitan  praised Madonna’s â€Å"liberated behavior on  Sex  [†¦] the fact that she takes all forms of pornography and systematically demystifies it by putting it under her control†, in an article in 1996. [79] Brian McNair, author of  Striptease Culture: Sex, Media and the Democratisation of Desire  (2012) praised this period of Madonna’s career, saying that she had â€Å"porno elegance† and that â€Å"Sex  is the author of a cultural phenomenon of global proportions [due to the critics] and thanks to this Madonna established her iconic status and cultural influence†. [28] Legacy[edit] Sex  is now considered a bold,  post-feminist, work of art,[64][80][81]  besides being labeled a â€Å"cultural book†. Martin Amis  from  The Observer  wrote an essay discussing the book’s cultural meaning. [28]  Critical theorist  Douglas Kellner  affirmed that withSex  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Madonna became herself, an artifact of  pop culture†. [82]  French academic writer  Georges Claude Guilbert  (author of three books about Madonna) described  Sex  as one of the most successful publicity stunts in history[83]  whereas Russell W. Belk, author of  Handbook of Qualitative Research Methods in Marketing  mentioned that the book is a  quality  product in  marketing. [84]  In 1992, Madonna had generated more than US$500  million ($840,289,305 in 2014 dollars[39]) to Time Warner in sales of both albums and the  Sex  book, despite the negative feedback. [85]  However, Taraborrelli commented in his book,  Madonna: An Intimate Biography, that those â€Å"who knew Madonna well at that time, knew what was really going on with her: theSex  book—and the outrageous antics that preceded it and would follow it—was really just something she used as a barrier between her and the rest of the world. â€Å"[54] For years it had seemed to Madonna that both her personal and professional life was extremely scrutinized by the public and  media, and although she had started this scrutinizing by her provocative works, she was tired of it. [54]  Being vexed at this interest in her personal life, Madonna fought back by creating the persona of a renegade, something so outrageous as to defy explanation, something found objectionable by most people. Taraborrelli said that in Madonna’s view, â€Å"she had no other way of fighting back†. [54]  The Boston Globe’s Matthew Gilbert analyzed the singer’s provocative attempt in an article published in the newspaper: â€Å"Madonna’s motive for baring her breasts to the public feels more like personal gratification, less like commitment to a cause. She’s not out to change the world. Let’s face it: Few people get erotic in front of millions of viewers for purely selfless political reasons. It’s hard to escape the view of Madonna as a difficult Catholic adolescent aiming the finger at everything repressive. And many of her songs are addressed to an authority figure of her youth — from God and Jesus Christ to her own father. The heart of Madonna’s outrageousness seems to lie beneath her liberal rationales, as if she’s acting out something private and the world is her couch, not to mention her bank. Her politics are largely Electral. â€Å"[86] According to some writers,  Sex  also helped Madonna make a name in the  porn industry,[62]  and earned her the title of  S&M’s first  cultural ambassador[87]  and was praised for recreating â€Å"porn-chic†. [88]  Humberto Quiroga Lavie pointed out that it was the fact that  Sex  was considered pornographic that helped it become a  bestseller. [89]  Steve Bachmann, on his book  Simulating Sex: Aesthetic Representations of Erotic Activity  pointed out that â€Å"perhaps one of the most interesting aspects of Madonna’s sexual phenomenon is the extent to which her book marked a new threshold in the pornographic franchise†. [90]  McNair wrote in his book that â€Å"Sex  brought out the personal underground to the surface of pop culture†. [28]  London art criticSarah Kent  wrote in  Time Out  magazine that the timing of  Sex  was â€Å"impeccable. [15]  Obsessions about the human body was in vogue, with Madonna’s book as well as artist  Andres Serrano’s â€Å"cumming shots† and  Jeff Koons’  The Jeff Koons Handbook, the latter portrayed fairytale pictures of the artist having sex with his pornographic actor wife,  Cicciolina. [15] Sex  has also become an important book in the  LGBT  community. Ben Shapiro, author of  Porn Generation: How Social Liberalism Is Corrupting Our Future  wrote that due to its iconic status â€Å"Sex  adorns the coffee tables of hundreds of gay men andsperm banks†. [91]  Mark Blankenship, from the LGBT-oriented website New Now Next stated that â€Å"literature changed forever† with the publishing of  Sex. [92]  Madonna’s portrayal of  lesbian  love scenes in the book sparked debates about her own sexual preferences. [93]  This was an adjunct to the singer’s public relationship with comedienne  Sandra Bernhard, with whom she cavorted around, visiting lesbian night-clubs as well as partying. The LGBT communit